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silo,watertight and airtight structure for making and storing silagesilage
, succulent, moist feed made by storing a green crop in a silo. The crop most used for silage is corn; others are sorghum, sunflowers, legumes, and grass.
..... Click the link for more information. . Silos vary in form from a covered pit, such as was used by the early Romans, to the modern storage tower, dating from the 19th cent. A silo may be made of wood, brick, reinforced concrete, metal, or tile blocks, and is sealed with earth, airproof paper, or plastic. Most of the more modern upright cylindrical silos are glass-lined and are considered the most efficient. Older or less expensive styles include the box silo, made of planks lined with heavy paper; the fence silo, with pickets arranged in a circle and lined with paper; the concrete-lined trench silo, into which dump trucks unload the chopped fodder; and the underground pit, built like a well or cistern.
a structure for the storage of silage. The primary purpose of a silo is to protect the ensiled material from air and water and from freezing.
Silos are built in the form of trenches, towers, and pits. Trench silos are the most common type in the USSR. Whenever possible, they are built on inclined, elevated sites in order to permit drainage of surface water and convenient access for vehicles. The trenches are sometimes excavated adjacent to livestock facilities. If a farm has a feed shop or feed kitchen, silo structures may be located nearby.
Trench silos are classified as surface, semiunderground, or underground. Surface trench silos are constructed on sites where the ground is flat and the water table is high. Underground and semiunderground trench silos are built on sites with cohesive soils, such as clay or loam, which permit retention of the ground’s natural angle of repose. Sites where the water table is relatively low are suitable for such silos. The type of mechanical equipment used for filling the silo and removing the silage and the number of livestock are taken into account in determining the size and construction of underground and semiunderground silos. The width of the silo must be no less than twice the length of the transport, packing, or unloading vehicles. The height of a surface trench silo should be no more than 3 m, and that of an underground or semiunderground trench silo no less than 3 m. The length is determined on the basis of the required capacity but should be no less than twice the width. The capacity ranges from 250 to 3,000 tons of silage. The principal building materials used for the walls and bottom are concrete, reinforced concrete, brick, and rubble. Prefabricated reinforced-concrete components are widely used.
After ensiling has been completed, the ends of surface trench silos are closed with boards or bales of straw. The trench walls are insulated with earth. Excavated earth is used to shore up the walls of semiunderground trench silos where the walls protrude above the ground. Ditches are built around silos for drainage of precipitation and runoff. Roads with hard surfaces are built leading up to the silo and approach ramps are constructed for vehicles.
REFERENCESNormy tekhnologicheskogo proektirovaniia silosokhranilishch. Moscow, 1965.
Spravochnik zootekhnika, 3rd ed., part 2. Moscow, 1969.
L. I. KROPP