and firethorn are hardy enough to withstand Antelope Valley winters.
Based on the research of Larry Santoyo, a ``food forest orchard'' of this kind might consist of ecologically compatible - and Valley compatible - species such as apple, Asian pear, walnut and black mulberry trees; silverberry
(Elaeagnus) shrubs; golden currants (Ribes aureum), strawberries, mushrooms, carrots and dill; and nasturtium and marigolds.
In this category of water-thrifty plants, all highlighted by Amos, are the following: crepe-flowered rock rose (Cistus), tall and daisy-flowered Cosmos, Cotoneaster, silverberry
(Elaeagnus), purple-flowered and self-sowing Verbena bonariensis, yellow-blooming Jerusalem sage (Phlomis fruticosa) and red hot poker (Kniphofia).
The plant in question is the Elaeagnus pungens, commonly known as silverberry
or thorny elaeagnus.