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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
They can't be digested until broken down into simple sugars, which are then absorbed in the intestines.
Indeed, alcohol avoidance, together with increased physical activity and the elimination of simple sugars from the diet, ought to be at the core of any strategy to reduce the obesity problem, he continued.
During 1997-1998, total simple sugar levels were consistently higher in the late (20 September) seeded treatments compared with the early (23 August) seeded treatments (Fig.
Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide similar to sucrose, which hydrolyzes to the simple sugars glucose and fructose.
The aptly named Comet Lovejoy contains ethanol and the simple sugar glycolaldehyde, researchers report October 23 in Science Advances.
Why don't you try some simple sugar swaps during the day: The Breakfast Swap: sugary cereal for plain |cereal e.
Xylanase Helps break down hemicellulose into xylose, a simple sugar that helps feed intestinal bacteria.
Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine found that under certain conditions (a simple sugar diet) acai supplementation could triple flies' lifespans, from eight to 24 days.
Researchers believe it all has to do with glucose, a simple sugar found in the bloodstream that provides energy for the brain.
Carbohydrate or simple sugar is what fuels all plant and animal growth.
Whether you choose simple sugar and lemon or go the whole hog with whipped cream, blueberries and golden syrup, forget the diet and tuck in.
Molecules of a simple sugar, glycolaldehyde, were detected in a cloud of gas and dust called Sagittarius B2 about 26,000 light years away.