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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Comet Lovejoy (shown) carries ethanol and the simple sugar glycolaldehyde.
obsidiansis grown on four different carbon sources, ranging from a simple sugar to more complex substrates such as pure cellulose and finally to switchgrass.
New research published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests that a purified form of a product modified from simple sugar molecules can eradicate killer viruses by mobilising white blood cells.
The corn refiners lobby probably hopes to expunge the chem-lab connotation of the word "fructose" (even though that simple sugar is found in fruits, honey and other foods), while highlighting the similarity between its syrup product and table sugar, which is sucrose refined from sugar cane or sugar beets.
Over the past century, a dramatic increase in the consumption of this simple sugar, which is used to sweeten a wide variety of processed foods, mirrors the dramatic rise in the prevalence of hypertension.
Though fructose, a simple sugar, is naturally found in high levels in fruit, it is also added to many processed foods as the sweetener called high-fructose corn syrup, or HFCS.
Under close supervision, contracted growers in tropical northern Australia hand pick the flowers, which are then deseeded, cleaned and packed into jars with simple sugar syrup entirely by hand at the company's factory in the tiny village of Kurrajong.
The sexes appear to differ in how they metabolise high levels of fructose, a simple sugar commonly used to sweeten drinks and foods.
Whether you choose simple sugar and lemon or go the whole hog with whipped cream, blueberries and golden syrup, forget the diet and tuck in.
The Milky Way nebula, Sagittarius B2, has revealed data suggesting the presence of aldehyde molecules that typically assist in the formation of amino acids, and scientists have reported their discovery of glycolaldehyde, a simple sugar.
We're going for the popcorn and cranberry garlands and simple sugar cookies.
Skilnick notes that Anheuser-Busch recently challenged the notion that the simple sugar maltose can be found in beer, and has proven the inaccuracy of the claim that low-carb dieters should avoid all forms of beer, including low-carb and light beers.