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an artificial hill used for jumping by skiers. A ski jump consists of a scaffold, an approach, where the skier picks up speed (height, 20–80 m; length, 60–110 m; width, 3–4 m; angle of inclination, 27°–38°), a takeoff (width, 4–6 m; height, 1–4 m), a landing slope (width, 15–20 m), and an outrun. The total distance from the top of the scaffold to the outrun is usually 1½ times more than the distance of the average jump. Ski jumps are rated according to distance as 20-m and less, 20–50-m, 50–70-m, 70–90-m, and 120-m and more. Elevators or cableways are used to carry the athletes to the top of the scaffold. When there is no snow, synthetic cover is used on jumps of 50–70 m.
The largest ski jumps in the USSR are in Krasnoiarsk (more than 120 m); Nizhnii Tagil, Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Bakuriani (90 m); and Kirovsk, Sverdlovsk, and Bakuriani (70 m). The largest ski jumps outside the USSR are found in Planica (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), Obertsdorf (Federal Republic of Germany), and Kulm (Austria), all of which measure 120 m. Other major ski jumps are found in Zakopane (Poland), which measures 90 m, and Holmenkollen (Norway), which measures 70 m. Olympic ski jumps, measuring 70 m and 90 m, are located in Squaw Valley (USA), Innsbruck (Austria), Cortina d’Ampezzo (Italy), Grenoble (France), and Sapporo (Japan).