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a widely used method of ‘measurement’ of social attractiveness within groups, invented by the Austrian-born US psychologist and psychiatrist Jacob MORENO. The technique involves the administration of a questionnaire in which respondents rank order the ‘attractiveness’ and ‘unattractiveness’ of fellow group members as coparticipants or colleagues, either generally or in particular activities. The results of these interpersonal choices are then plotted on a diagram, termed a sociogram, the configuration revealing sociometric 'stars’ and ‘rejectees’. and cliques of mutual positive appraisal and social ‘isolates’.



the branch of social psychology that studies interpersonal relationships, devoting primary attention to their quantitative measurement.

The term “sociometry” was first used in the 19th century in connection with attempts to apply mathematical methods to the study of social facts. In the 20th century microsociologists, including G. Gurvitch, attempted to explain social phenomena by investigating the personal relationships between individuals. J. Moreno redefined the term “sociometry,” narrowing its meaning to the study of the relationships between individuals. He included reactionary Utopian arguments as well as experimental methods in sociometry.

With the development of social psychology the term “sociometry” has acquired a more specific meaning, denoting a group of methods used to investigate interpersonal relationships. A so-ciometric test establishes the preference, or attitude, expressed by an individual concerning interaction with other individuals in a given situation. Such a test makes it possible to describe an individual’s position within a group in terms of the individual’s own perception of it, to compare this with the reactions of other group members, and to express the interrelationships within comparable groups by formal methods, including mathematical and graphic methods.

Psychodrama and sociodrama reproduce the personal relationships that exist between individuals under study in a dramatized situation. They are used both diagnostically and therapeutically. Sociometric methods are used extensively for therapeutic purposes and in studying small groups with the aim of improving management.


Moreno, J. L. Sotsiomelriia. Moscow, 1958. (Translated from German.)
Kolominskii, la. L. Psikhologiia lichnykh vzaimootnoshenii v dets-kom kollektive. Minsk, 1969.
Kuz’min, E. S. Osnovy sotsial’noipsikhologii. Leningrad, 1967.
Lektsii po metodike konkretnykh sotsial’nykh issledovanii. Moscow, 1972.
Volkov, I. P. Sotsiometricheskie metody v sotsial’no-psikhologiches-kikh issledovaniiakh. Leningrad, 1970.
Lindzey, G., and D. Byrne. “Measurement of Social Choice and Interpersonal Attractiveness.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 2. Reading, Mass., 1968.
Northway, M. L. A Primer of Sociometry. Toronto, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Children's naturalistic entry behavior and sociometric status: A developmental perspective.
After accounting for gender and ethnicity, the researchers discovered that sociometric status, but not socioeconomic status, predicted students' social well-being scores.
The current study sought to examine the sociometric nominations of children with disabilities presently enrolled in inclusive classrooms and to compare these children to their typical peers on a number of different variables.
Adolescents in stepfamilies were less well adjusted on various outcomes (adolescent positive behavior, teacher-rated internalizing, externalizing and sociometric status, and adolescent-rated anxiety and depression).
Aggression and sociometric status among peers: Do gender and type of aggression matter?
Once the youth signed consents, they completed sociometric ratings of all of the other youth in the home.
Contained within this vast range of activities and exercises are some 'old school' standards, Helium Stick and Minefield being two, but there are also some activities I have never encountered before: Amoeba Race and Sociometric Questions (the latter being an icebreaker).
The Frost & Sullivan Economic Research and Analytics team provides research focused on timely and critical sociometric, econometric, demographic, political, and regulatory information for specific countries by industry.
Sociometric analyses of the dominant images associated with nuclear waste emphasize that the crisis, which appears so technical, is actually more one of failed confidence in those tasked with the management of highly radioactive materials.
This issue is treated, for example, in NetClass [21] using the learner model, the author information and a sociometric test (that measures the degree of cohesion among students).
Studies of group behavior: Stability, change, and interrelations of psychometric and sociometric variables.
The theoretical approach was grounded in the body of a multi-item measurement theory that has developed around psychometric and sociometric measurement.