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An instrument for measuring the arterial blood pressure.



an instrument for measuring the arterial blood pressure indirectly. There are two types of sphygmomanometer: the mercury, or Riva-Rocci sphygmomanometer, named after the Italian pediatrician S. Riva-Rocci, who designed it in 1896, and the membrane sphygmomanometer, generally called a tonometer.

The sphygmomanometer has a manometer and is equipped with a rubber pressure cuff covered with closely woven cloth, a pressure bulb with air valves, T-pipe, and a screw valve for reducing pressure. The auscultatory, or acoustic, method of N. S. Korotkov is the usual method of measuring arterial pressure indirectly. The pressure cuff is generally wrapped around the shoulder and inflated with air in order to compress the brachial artery and arrest the flow of blood in it. The capsule of a phonendoscope is positioned at the anterior part of the elbow joint, and air is gradually released from the cuff; a note is made of the manometer reading at which Korotkov sounds are audible in the phonendoscope. At this moment, the pressure in the cuff corresponds to the systolic (maximum) blood pressure in the brachial artery. The sounds disappear as more air is released from the cuff. At the moment when the sounds cease, the pressure is equal to the diastolic (minimum) pressure. Automatic devices have been designed to monitor blood pressure in seriously ill persons. They are modeled on the sphygmomanometer and detect sounds by means of a microphone.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the present study, the maximum vasodepressor response occurred within 18 s of stimulus and blood pressure returned to baseline measurements in less than 1 min, highlighting the rapidity of this response and the necessity for phasic arterial monitoring; standard sphygmomanometry or automated digital sphygmomanometr would not identify these rapid changes.
Moore PV, Flynn JB: Users of coin operated computerized sphygmomanometry and reasons for utilization: A descriptive study.
The co-primary endpoints of the trial are the changes from baseline to week 14 in trough sitting SBP and trough sitting DBP, as measured by sphygmomanometry.
Before the treadmill test, subjects remained supine in a quiet environment for 15 minutes and the resting brachial blood pressure (Korotkoff phase I and IV) was measured and recorded by means of audible sphygmomanometry using a calibrated mercury column sphygmomanometer with an appropriately sized cuff.
Results of the trial demonstrated that 150 mg (at week 8) and 300 mg (at week 10) of darusentan dosed once daily provided statistically significant placebo-corrected reductions in systolic blood pressure measured by standard sphygmomanometry, as well as 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).