Accessory Nerve

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Related to spinal accessory: vagus nerve

accessory nerve

[ak′ses·ə·rē ‚nərv]
(neuroscience)
The eleventh cranial nerve in tetrapods, a paired visceral motor nerve; the bulbar part innervates the larynx and pharynx, and the spinal part innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles.

Nerve, Accessory

 

(nervus accessorius, or nerve of Willis, after the English physician T. Willis, who first described it in 1664), the 11th pair of cranial nerves.

The accessory nerve originates in the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. It emerges from the cranial cavity with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves through the jugular foramen and supplies motor fibers to the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the neck (with unilateral contraction, this muscle inclines the head to the side and turns the face in the opposite direction) and to the trapezius muscle on the back (it raises the pectoral girdle and adducts the scapula). Some of the fibers of the accessory nerve are connected to the vagus nerve and with its branches reach the muscles of the soft palate, the pharynx, and the larynx.

References in periodicals archive ?
Conclusion: Spinal accessory (SA) to supra-scapular (SS) nerve transfer is important shoulder stabilization operation and if done at appropriate time, can result in an acceptable shoulder function.
Shoulder pain and function after neck dissection with or without preservation of the spinal accessory nerve.
Shoulder complaints after neck dissection: Is the spinal accessory nerve involved?
Shoulder function following partial spinal accessory nerve transfer for brachial plexus birth injury.
The spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer is an older yet reliable option for restoration of glenohumeral stability and shoulder abduction.
Flanagan testified that had she been informed of a risk of injury to the spinal accessory nerve and had she been apprised of the alternatives, such as observation and/or needle biopsy, she would have declined to authorize the excision of the enlarged node.
Anatomic relationship between the spinal accessory nerve and internal jugular vein in the upper neck.
In particular, can the surgeon avoid dissection of levels II-B and V-A to avoid dissection of the spinal accessory nerve, yet still provide an oncologically sound clearance of occult cervical metastatic disease?
We conducted a prospective study of 11 patients to (1) determine the feasibility of electrophysiologic monitoring of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during modified radical neck dissection, (2) determine whether a threshold increase in current is required to stimulate the SAN by comparing the amount of current on initial identification of the SAN and the amount of current after completion of the dissection prior to closure, and (3) determine whether clinical outcome measures of shoulder syndrome at 72 hours and 45 days postoperatively are affected by a threshold increase.
Hatcher-Murphy Disorder (HMD) is a manifestation or dysfunction of the tissues involving the brainstem and the spinal accessory nerve or cranial nerve 11.