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an agricultural machine that spreads and evenly distributes organic and mineral fertilizers and poisoned bait over the surface of a field.
Organic-fertilizer spreaders include manure and liquid-manure spreaders. A manure spreader consists of a tractor trailer or body suspended on a self-propelled chassis and equipped with a scraper or slat conveyor that moves along the bottom of the body; the spreading element is often in the form of a drum with blades. Organic fertilizers, such as manure, peat, and composts, are poured into the body of the spreader, and as the unit moves the conveyor carries the fertilizer to the spreading drums, which drop the fertilizer onto the field. The amount of fertilizer spread is regulated by the speed of the conveyor and the tractor. The working parts of the spreader are driven by the tractor’s power-takeoff shaft. The spreader can mix organic and mineral fertilizers by loading them into the body in layers and can spread the mixture over a field. It can also be used for hauling after the working parts are removed and the back gate is secured.
The mineral-fertilizer spreader has a body for the fertilizer, a spreading device in the form of a pan distributor or a chain-and-pin conveyor, a chain-and-plank conveyor for feeding fertilizer to the distributing device, a dosing unit, and a wind screen. The working parts of the spreader are driven by the tractor’s power-takeoff shaft. Fertilizer application is regulated by the speed of the conveyor and the tractor and the size of the slit between the bottom of the body and the dosing screen. The spreader can be used to spread lime when liming the soil.
Poisoned-bait spreaders have a bin to hold poisoned bait and a cellular dosing cylinder. Gravity forces the bait from the bin into the doser, where the bait fills the cells of the cylinder. The bait then drops onto a return board and onto the surface of the field. Spreaders are mounted on trucks such as the GAZ-53 or on tractor trailers.