2) For additional exploration into defense and security in stateless societies
, see Leeson and Coyne (2014), Block (2014), Cole (2007), and Jasay (2008).
Due to all this, Friedman argues drugs would likely be legal in stateless societies
, but ultimately, it is an empirical question.
The Oceanic cases considered here, although dealing with states at their margins, do not describe stateless societies
but societies that are deeply state-centric.
Similarly, data from 27 stateless societies
studied by modem ethnographers found war deaths averaged 500 per 100,000 people, whereas all deaths from wars, genocides, and man-made famines in modern societies in the 20th century amount to a mere 60 to per 100,000.
is incompatible with anarchism since it gives a select elite power over others', shared religious beliefs that are equally accessible to all can form part of the 'diffuse' sanctions that people use in stateless societies
to discourage anti-social behaviour.
Historians and archaeologists have attempted to grapple with the significance of the finds: "Such a concentration of wealth as the metalwork and the beads represent," says Willet, "has been thought to imply some sort of centralised government unlike the stateless societies
that characterised Igboland at the time of the first European contacts.
Many stateless societies
also populated precolonial Africa; a few encompassed significant numbers of people.
They and their successors were confined to non-Western underdeveloped countries, to stateless societies
, to what Joel S.
He reasserts the need for a state - the days of the 'idyllic' politics of stateless societies
in Africa are gone forever - but clearly not states as they have so often been.
Chartier devotes another chapter to explaining how stateless societies
would respond to non-state aggression.
Because stateless societies
invite their own destruction by predatory groups.
Radical libertarians, such as Rothbard (1974, 1978), explicitly acknowledge the historical triumph of governments over primitive stateless societies
when they embrace the conquest theory of the origins of the state.