Observing average statolith
diameter of juveniles on hatching (69.
5-1 mm along the oral-aboral axis, lacked bristles by DIC microscopy, yet possessed a dome and four balancers supporting a small statolith
In some atypical beak samples, we found "check" rings, which were similar to the rings in the microstructure of the statolith
Analysis of the ratio of microelements deposited in statoliths
can be useful to discriminate spawning seasons (e.
The single large statolith
consists of numerous aggregated living cells, or lithocytes.
Both the funnel organ and statolith
of this species are described based in McGowan & Okutani (1968), Clarke (1978), and Lipinski et al.
7 mm/day in the 18-48 cm ML range (Araya, 1983), and good agreement exists between growth rates obtained from tag-recapture studies and those from statolith
aging studies (Yatsu et al.
A common feature is a fluid-filled cavity that contains a mass (a single statolith
or numerous statoconia) of higher specific weight than the surrounding fluid that can load and mechanically stimulate underlying sensory elements, resulting in behavioral responses to gravity (Horridge, 1969, 1971; Budelmann, 1988).
maturation patterns, trophic relationships, the occurrence of certain parasites, statolith
morphometrics), however, suggests that these squid are in fact BNS members that migrate north to spawn in Brazilian waters (Santos & Haimovici, 1997; Schwarz & Perez, 2007).
age estimates of the loliginid squid Loligo opalescens (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): corroboration with culture data.
Since changing the density of the external medium has no effect on the sedimentation of intracellular particles, these results are inconsistent with the statolith
model but predicted by, and consistent with, the gravitational pressure hypothesis for plant gravisensing.
Based on statolith
studies, its life span is generally assumed to be 1 y, and only the largest animals are thought to attain an age of 2 y (Nigmatullin et al.