steroids


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steroids,

class of lipidslipids,
a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from fossil material.
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 having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals. In humans, steroids are secreted by the ovaries and testes, the adrenal cortex (see adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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), and the placenta.

The range of steroids is diverse, including several forms of vitamin D, digitalis, sterols (e.g., cholesterolcholesterol
, fatty lipid found in the body tissues and blood plasma of vertebrates; it is only sparingly soluble in water, but much more soluble in some organic solvents. A steroid, cholesterol can be found in large concentrations in the brain, spinal cord, and liver.
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), and the bile acids. Many steroids are biologically active hormoneshormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that control a number of the body's metabolic processes. This group includes the male sex hormone testosteronetestosterone
, principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the ovaries, cortices of the adrenal glands, and placenta, usually
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 and the female sex hormones estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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. The steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex include glucocorticoids such as cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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 and cortisolcortisol
or hydrocortisone,
steroid hormone that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal gland. Like cortisone, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate
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 (see also corticosteroid drugcorticosteroid drug
, any one of several synthetic or naturally occurring substances with the general chemical structure of steroids. They are used therapeutically to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the
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) and mineralocorticoids such as aldosteronealdosterone
, steroid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. It is the most potent hormone regulating the body's electrolyte balance. Aldosterone acts directly on the kidney to decrease the rate of sodium-ion excretion (with accompanying retention of water), and to
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.

Natural or synthetic steroids are used in oral contraceptives and in the treatment of arthritisarthritis,
painful inflammation of a joint or joints of the body, usually producing heat and redness. There are many kinds of arthritis. In its various forms, arthritis disables more people than any other chronic disorder.
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, Addison's diseaseAddison's disease
[for Thomas Addison], progressive disease brought about by atrophy of the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland; it is also called chronic adrenocortical insufficiency.
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, and certain skin ailments. Side effects, related to dosage and length of treatment, can be serious and include high blood pressure, edema, unwanted hair growth, and menstrual cycle disruption. Anabolic steroidsanabolic steroid
or androgenic steroid
, any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote muscle and bone growth. Used to treat uncontrolled weight loss in wasting diseases, anabolic steroids have also been taken by bodybuilders and athletes seeking
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, male hormones given to build up strength in seriously ill patients, have been abused by bodybuilders and athletes in an attempt to increase muscle mass and strength.

References in periodicals archive ?
Clark allegedly admitted she had been involved in distributing the steroids beginning in October.
But human and mouse muscles probably react similarly to steroids.
He goes on to explain the roles of personal influence and that if money is a reward[of steroid-enhanced performance] and needed to support a family, the use of steroids could be worth the risk.
His comments come after the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs last week said ordering anabolic steroids over the internet should be made illegal.
Most of the bodybuilding clubs in the city provide these steroids to the trainees that are brought from Lahore and Gujranwala" says Rashid, a bodybuilder.
Because the steroids in question are known to be anabolic, they refer to complex substances made from simpler ones as opposed to catabolic substances that are broken down from their complex origins.
Suppression of the HPA axis by exogenous steroids may occur, causing inhibition of ACTH release and Cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland.
Dugdale said: "Anabolic steroids do have an effect and that effect is fairly prolonged.
Categories: Health, Adolescent health, Drug abuse, Drug abuse prevention, Drugs, Federal aid programs, Health hazards, Program evaluation, Public health research, Schools, Secondary school students, Steroids, Students, Surveys, Teenagers, Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives, Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids, Drug-Free Communities Support program, School-Based Student Drug Testing program
Arthur, the California Horse Racing Board's equine medical director, made the comment shortly before CHRB leaders met with about 50 thoroughbred trainers at Santa Anita to discuss a board committee's push for tougher penalties for medication violations and tighter restrictions on the use of clenbuterol as well as a ban on anabolic steroids for horses.
Records set by baseball players who used steroids should be taken off the books, because the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sports is cheating.
Second, the detection of steroids is very difficult and expensive.
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