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in zoology, organ found in bees, many wasps, some ants, and in scorpions and sting rays, used defensively as well as to kill or paralyze prey. In the bee and the wasp the venomvenom
or zootoxin,
any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct.
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 is produced by glands associated with the ovipositor (egg-laying organ) of the female. As symptoms differ, it is assumed that the venom of each species of insect probably has slightly different chemical properties. The bee's "acid gland" produces histamine and proteinlike substances that are extremely dangerous to persons with specific allergies to them. Adrenaline injections may be lifesaving in such cases. In the honeybee the sting is a minute needle with tiny serrated edges, the teeth of which point backward. This makes it hard for the insect to pull the organ loose and often results in the fatal loss of the sting, the poison gland, and part of the intestine. Hornets, yellow jackets, and other wasps have sharp, smooth stings that can be used repeatedly. A few ants produce formic acid as a venom. The scorpion kills its prey with poison injected by a curved spine at the tip of its tail; the wound is painful to human adults and may be fatal to children. Strictly speaking, spiders bite rather than sting, since they inject their venom by means of fanglike cheliceras. Coelenterates, e.g., the hydra, jellyfish, and certain corals, are equipped with stinging capsules (nematocysts) consisting of a trigger mechanism that, when stimulated, raises the hydrostatic pressure of the cell so that hollow venom-bearing threads are ejected with enough force to pierce the prey. The larger coelenterates, e.g., the Portuguese man-of-war and Cyanea, are dangerous to man. The stingrays, or stingarees, have long whiplike tails bearing one to three sharply toothed, bony, poisonous stingers capable of inflicting painful wounds.


1. a skin wound caused by the poison injected by certain insects or plants
2. pain caused by or as if by the sting of a plant or animal
3. a sharp pointed organ, such as the ovipositor of a wasp, by which poison can be injected into the prey
4. Slang a trap set up by the police to entice a person to commit a crime and thereby produce evidence


A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level operating system for symbolic programming languages. First-class threads and processors and customisable scheduling policies.

E-mail: <>.

["A Customizable Substrate for Concurrent Languages", S. Jagannathan et al, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1992].
References in periodicals archive ?
Although less common, a skin reaction to a stinging insect may occur away from the sting site and include hives, itching, and redness.
My favorite way to eat nettles is Stinging Nettle Soup (see the Healthy Eating Guide in this issue of New Life Journal)
To confirm that they indeed had isolated the component of olive oil that caused the stinging sensation, the scientists made synthetic copies of oleocanthal in the lab.
It's important to understand what we can do to mitigate the health problems these stinging insects present," said Dr.
One area of a bee chromosome, perhaps just one gene, accounts for some 13 percent of the variance in stinging behavior, report Greg J.
But it's also the season that stinging insects - including yellowjackets, wasps and Africanized "killer" bees - are most active and aggressive, leading to an increased number of stings.
National Pest Management Association Offers Tips to Help Avoid Stinging Insects
Of this last category, many people are familiar with hazards that various bugs can represent: the stinging of bees and wasps; the transmission of disease by ticks, flies, fleas and mosquitoes; the allergies caused by cockroaches and dust mites.
Unfortunately for some unlucky individuals that visual pleasure may be dangerous as well as beautiful, due to the swarms of small, buzzing creatures -- honeybees, wasps, hornets and other stinging insects -- that busy themselves with gathering nectar from those same fragrant blossoms that human noses like to sniff.
Stinging insects are most active in the summer and early fall when their nest populations exceed 60,000.
One final point: It is also worth remembering that no insect repellent is very effective against stinging insects like bees, yellow jackets and other wasps and fire ants.