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in zoology, organ found in bees, many wasps, some ants, and in scorpions and sting rays, used defensively as well as to kill or paralyze prey. In the bee and the wasp the venomvenom
or zootoxin,
any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct.
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 is produced by glands associated with the ovipositor (egg-laying organ) of the female. As symptoms differ, it is assumed that the venom of each species of insect probably has slightly different chemical properties. The bee's "acid gland" produces histamine and proteinlike substances that are extremely dangerous to persons with specific allergies to them. Adrenaline injections may be lifesaving in such cases. In the honeybee the sting is a minute needle with tiny serrated edges, the teeth of which point backward. This makes it hard for the insect to pull the organ loose and often results in the fatal loss of the sting, the poison gland, and part of the intestine. Hornets, yellow jackets, and other wasps have sharp, smooth stings that can be used repeatedly. A few ants produce formic acid as a venom. The scorpion kills its prey with poison injected by a curved spine at the tip of its tail; the wound is painful to human adults and may be fatal to children. Strictly speaking, spiders bite rather than sting, since they inject their venom by means of fanglike cheliceras. Coelenterates, e.g., the hydra, jellyfish, and certain corals, are equipped with stinging capsules (nematocysts) consisting of a trigger mechanism that, when stimulated, raises the hydrostatic pressure of the cell so that hollow venom-bearing threads are ejected with enough force to pierce the prey. The larger coelenterates, e.g., the Portuguese man-of-war and Cyanea, are dangerous to man. The stingrays, or stingarees, have long whiplike tails bearing one to three sharply toothed, bony, poisonous stingers capable of inflicting painful wounds.


1. a skin wound caused by the poison injected by certain insects or plants
2. pain caused by or as if by the sting of a plant or animal
3. a sharp pointed organ, such as the ovipositor of a wasp, by which poison can be injected into the prey
4. Slang a trap set up by the police to entice a person to commit a crime and thereby produce evidence


A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level operating system for symbolic programming languages. First-class threads and processors and customisable scheduling policies.

E-mail: <>.

["A Customizable Substrate for Concurrent Languages", S. Jagannathan et al, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1992].
References in periodicals archive ?
Or, after their post-match tongue-lashing, were the Sky Blues players simply pretending they hadn't heard, to protect their wounded egos from some of the stingingly harsh home truths their manager (far right) said?
Years later, an editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association stingingly said, "IT]he evidence is unequivocal--the U.
The ground at Deauville-seldom stingingly fast, whatever the conditions -is reported as genuinely good.
He then writes stingingly, "[t]he fact that both presuppositions of this objection are clearly wrong is indicative of the low level of argument that is customary in what currently passes for serious economic discourse.
Pertinently, stingingly, Kincaid unpacks the ways in which our culture focuses pathologically on child-abuse, turning it into the spectacle by which we would otherwise be horrified, while the media and advertising only promote erotic attention.
Some of his literary gestures work less well than others here - the plot-heavy take on character actor Bob Balaban's repetitious roles is repetitious, for in stance, and the photos that speckle the book are less interesting aesthetically and thematically than they might be (with the exception of one very funny collage-text) - but in large part this is a breathtakingly intelligent project of confession and appropriation textured with electric insights, glassy prose, and a cool, dry, arch irony about David Shields's favorite subject, David Shields, a character at once stingingly self-aware and painfully forlorn: "I don't know what's the matter with me - why I'm an adept only at distance, why I feel so remote from things, why life feels like a rumor.