stock


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stock, in horticulture

stock,

in horticulture: see graftinggrafting,
horticultural practice of uniting parts of two plants so that they grow as one. The scion, or cion, the part grafted onto the stock or rooted part, may be a single bud, as in budding, or a cutting that has several buds.
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.

stock, in finance

stock,

in finance, instrument certifying to shares in the ownership of a corporation. Bonds are similar evidences of shares in a loan to a corporation. Stock yields no dividends until claims of bondholders have been met. Preferred stock is entitled to dividends of a specified percentage per annum before common stock is entitled to any dividends; the common stock is then usually entitled to the rest of the profits. In case of liquidation of the company, holders of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over holders of common stock in the division of assets. Holders of common stock usually have voting rights in the management of the corporation; bondholders and, usually, holders of preferred stock have no voting rights. Since the value of common stock depends largely on its earnings, it is often issued with no par value. Public demand for securities and the need of corporations for ready capital have led to the development of stock exchanges in most of the major cities of the world (see stock exchangestock exchange,
organized market for the trading of stocks and bonds (see bond; stock). Such markets were originally open to all, but at present only members of the owning association may buy and sell directly.
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).

stock, in botany

stock,

in botany, common name for any species of the genus Matthiola, for Malcomia maritima (Virginia stock), and for the wallflower, all belonging to the family Cruciferae (mustardmustard,
common name for the Cruciferae, a large family chiefly of herbs of north temperate regions. The easily distinguished flowers of the Cruciferae have four petals arranged diagonally ("cruciform") and alternating with the four sepals.
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 family), and for a carnation of the family Caryophyllaceae (pinkpink,
common name for some members of the Caryophyllaceae, a family of small herbs found chiefly in north temperate zones (especially the Mediterranean area) but with several genera indigenous to south temperate zones and high altitudes of tropical mountains.
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 family). Most are herbs indigenous to the Mediterranean region and to S Africa. A few are widely cultivated, both in greenhouses and in gardens, for the fragrant blossoms—usually purplish in the wild but of various colors in horticultural types. The evening stock, or perfume plant (Matthiola bicornis), is night-blooming; the Brampton stock, or gillyflower (M. incana), has an early blooming variety (annua), known as ten-weeks-stock or cut-and-come-again, which is sometimes grown as a house plant. The name gillyflower is also used for the Virginia stock, the wallflower, and for the carnation of the pinkpink,
common name for some members of the Caryophyllaceae, a family of small herbs found chiefly in north temperate zones (especially the Mediterranean area) but with several genera indigenous to south temperate zones and high altitudes of tropical mountains.
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 family. Stock is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Capparales, family Cruciferae; and order Caryophyllales, family Caryophyllaceae.

Stock

Any material such as lumber or masonry that is normally readily available from a supplier’s stock.

Stock

 

(Matthiola incana), an annual or biennial ornamental plant of the family Cruciferae. The stem is grassy and measures between 20 and 80 cm tall. The leaves are lanceolate or narrowly obovate. The flowers are simple or double, variously colored, fragrant, and gathered into tight or loose racemose inflorescences. Stock grows wild in the Mediterranean region. Its cultivation has been traced back to the 16th century.

According to the duration of the cycle of development, the following varieties are distinguished: ten-week, or intermediate stock (var. annua), winter stock (var. hiberna), and autumn-blooming stock (var. autumnalis). The last is a hybrid of ten-week and winter stock. Each variety is represented by numerous forms, which are united in varietal groups according to the height and shape of the bush, the length and compactness of the inflorescence, and the distinguishing colors of the flowers.

Ten-week stock is an annual plant, used primarily in flower beds, as summer potted plants, and for cut flowers. For early flowering the seeds are planted in the second half of March in benches in green houses. They are transplanted in the ground in May. The seeds can be sown in the open ground in April and May or right before winter.

Winter stock is a biennial plant (in cultivation); in southern regions it is dormant in the open ground during the winter and flowers in spring. It is used in interior decoration as a potted plant. The seeds are sown in April and May in benches in greenhouses or in cold frames, and the seedlings are transplanted in open ground in the first half of July. At the end of September the plants are placed in pots, set up in hotbeds, covered with frames, and shaded. In November or later the plants are transferred to a greenhouse or a room, where they blossom from March through May.

REFERENCE

Kiselev, G. E. Tsvetovodstvo, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1964.

O. V. SELEZNEVA


Stock

 

in fruit growing, a plant or part of a plant upon which a scion of another plant variety is grafted. Stocks may be of seed (seedlings or wildlings) or vegetative origin. The stock and the scion join together to form a single plant, but each performs different functions. The stock supplies the graft with minerals, synthesized organic substances, and water; the scion provides products of assimilation. This feature in the nutrition of the graft leads to a complex relationship between the scion and the stock and to their reciprocal influence. The relationship may be favorable, in which case normally developed plants are formed; an unfavorable relationship results in seedlings and trees that are in some measure deficient. The result depends on the completeness of the joining of stock and scion and the degree of completeness of the metabolism effected between them, that is, on the physiological compatibility of the stock and scion.

The stock influences the growth intensity, early fertility, yield, and longevity of the graft; the beginning and end of growth of grafted trees; and the time of leaf fall and maturation of tissues. It consequently influences the graft’s winterhardiness and its resistance to frost, pests, disease, and unfavorable soil and climatic conditions. However, these characteristics are temporary, not becoming fixed genetically and disappearing with the cessation of the stock’s influence on the grafted tree. The scion may lower or raise the winterhardiness of the stock and may influence the shape and the depth of the root system.

Owing to the importance of the stock in fruit growing, a number of requirements are made of it that guarantee the production of fruit trees with great viability and productivity. Stocks must be well adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the places where the seedlings are grown and the orchards are planted. They must be winter-hardy, and, in the south, drought resistant. Some must also be salt tolerant. The stocks must be compatible with the varieties to be grafted on them.

In fruit growing, different stocks are used for the same crop. The stock used is determined by production goals. For example, apple is grafted onto seedlings of cultivated varieties and on crab apple trees in the southern and central regions of the USSR, onto the Chinese apple in more northerly regions, and onto the Siberian apple and its strains in the east and north. Stocks are regionalized for different fruit-growing zones and are divided into principal stocks (more important and more frequently used) and supplementary stocks (having secondary or often specialized significance). The specificity of stock use extends the range of commercial fruit crops and the most valuable varieties. In the USSR, nurseries raise about 40 species of stocks, which vary in origin (wild or cultivated), growth intensity (strong or weak), and means of propagation (seed or vegetative).

REFERENCES

Stepanov, S. N. Plodovyi pitomnik, 2nd ed. [Moscow, 1963.]
Trusevich, G. V. Podvoi plodovykh porod. Moscow, 1964.
Katalog raionirovannykh sortov plodovo-iagodnykh kul’tur, vinograda i podvoev po RSFSR. Moscow, 1966.
Plodovodstvo, 2nd ed. Edited by V. A. Kolesnikov. Moscow, 1966.

M. D. KUZNETSOV


Stock

 

the straw of flax, hemp, and certain southern bast crops (for example, jute and kenaf) treated by biological, thermal, or chemical procedures that break down the pectin substances binding the wood and exodermis to the fiber bundles. Fiber for spinning is obtained from stock by mechanical means: breaking, beating, and combing.


Stock

 

(geology), a cylindrical, tear-shaped, or cube-shaped body of rock or useful mineral. Its intersecting contacts with the country rock are irregular in outline and complicated by swells and shoots. Stocks vary in width from a few meters to several kilometers and have a vertical extent of up to several kilometers.

Three types of stocks are distinguished according to conditions of formation: tectonic, magmatic, and metasomatic. Tectonic stocks occur as a result of squeezing out the plastic substance of rocks during tectonic deformations, for example, stocks of rock salt in regions of tectonic salt structures.

Magmatic stocks form when a magmatic melt enters the country rock. In the early géosynclinal stage, stocks of ultrabasic and basic rocks are formed, as well as stocks of chromites and titano-magnetites associated with them. In the middle stage, stocks of granitoids are formed. In the late stage of the géosynclinal cycle and under platform conditions, stocks of syenites, porphyries, porphyrites, diabases, and andésites are formed.

Metasomatic stocks form when the rock is replaced by a mineral substance precipitated from hot hydrothermal solutions circulating in the crust. Examples of such stocks are those of copper, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, and other metal ores.

stock

[stäk]
(geology)
(industrial engineering)
A product or material kept in storage until needed for use or transferred to some ultimate point for use, for example, crude oil tankage or paper-pulp feed.
Designation of a particular material, such as bright stock or naphtha stock.
(petrology)
A usually discordant, batholithlike body of intrusive igneous rock not exceeding 40 square miles (103.6 square kilometers) in surface exposure and usually discordant.

stock

1. Lumber, panels, doors, windows, etc., commonly used and readily available from suppliers.
2. The principal supporting or holding part; the part in which other parts are inserted, as the body of a tool.
3. A tool, used in cutting threads for pipes or bolts, which holds the dies.

stock

symbolizes enduring loveliness. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 177]

stock

1. 
a. the total goods or raw material kept on the premises of a shop or business
b. (as modifier): a stock clerk
2. the trunk or main stem of a tree or other plant
3. Horticulture
a. a rooted plant into which a scion is inserted during grafting
b. a plant or stem from which cuttings are taken
4. the original type from which a particular race, family, group, etc., is derived
5. a race, breed, or variety of animals or plants
6. any of the major subdivisions of the human species; race or ethnic group
7. the main body of a tool, such as the block of a plane
9. film material before exposure and processing
10. Metallurgy
a. a portion of metal cut from a bar upon which a specific process, such as forging, is to be carried out
b. the material that is smelted in a blast furnace
11. any of several plants of the genus Matthiola, such as M. incana and M. bicornis (evening or night-scented stock), of the Mediterranean region, cultivated for their brightly coloured flowers: Brassicaceae (crucifers)
12. Virginian stock a similar and related North American plant, Malcolmia maritima
13. Cards a pile of cards left after the deal in certain games, from which players draw
14. 
a. the repertoire of plays available to a repertory company
b. (as modifier): a stock play
15. (on some types of anchors) a crosspiece at the top of the shank under the ring
16. the centre of a wheel
17. an exposed igneous intrusion that is smaller in area than a batholith
18. a log or block of wood
References in classic literature ?
As for Bell, the first cause of the telephone business, he did what a true scientific Bohemian might have been expected to do; he gave all his stock to his bride on their marriage-day and resumed his work as an instructor of deaf-mutes.
Curiously enough the age-old instinct of loyalty and devotion towards the Hive made the sound bees do this, though their reason told them they ought to slip away and unite with some other healthy stock in the apiary.
Then the son sat down on the fox's tail, and away they went over stock and stone till their hair whistled in the wind.
During this time Kennedy was completing his stock of fresh meat.
It was often hard work, but nevertheless this hiring was a fairly steady source of profit, until one day all the panes in the window and door were broken and the stock on sale in the window greatly damaged and disordered bv two over-critical hirers with no sense of rhetorical irrelevance.
However, he restrained himself, and kept in strict privacy from Fred certain visits which he was making to Stone Court, in order to look more thoroughly into the state of the land and stock, and take a preliminary estimate.
Promptly came the reply that there was no record on the books of father's owning any stock, and a polite request for more explicit information.
In many cases we do not know what the aboriginal stock was, and so could not tell whether or not nearly perfect reversion had ensued.
He come of good Down East stock that's got business instinct an' can add to what it's got.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax - for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
With this stock I had the world to begin again; but you are to consider that I was not now the same woman as when I lived at Redriff; for, first of all, I was near twenty years older, and did not look the better for my age, nor for my rambles to Virginia and back again; and though I omitted nothing that might set me out to advantage, except painting, for that I never stooped to, and had pride enough to think I did not want it, yet there would always be some difference seen between five-and-twenty and two-and-forty.
In the old days men used to worship stocks and stones and idols, and prayed to them to give them luck.