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(strĕp'tōmī`sĭn), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g., some streptococci, penicillin-resistant staphylococci, and bacteria of the genera Proteus and Pseudomonas. Originally isolated in 1947 by Albert Schatz, a graduate student working in Selman A. WaksmanWaksman, Selman Abraham
, 1888–1973, American microbiologist, b. Priluka, Russia, grad. Rutgers (B.S. 1915), Ph.D. Univ. of California, 1918. He went to the United States in 1910 and was naturalized in 1916.
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's laboratory, streptomycin is effective against tubercle bacilli and has long been a mainstay of tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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 therapy. Because streptomycin-resistant tubercle bacilli emerge during treatment, the antibiotic is usually used in combination with one or more of the drugs isoniazidisoniazid
, drug used to treat tuberculosis. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease.
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, ethambutol, and aminosalicylic acid, and isoniazid is now the treatment of choice for prevention of tuberculosis and for active cases. Streptomycin acts by inhibiting protein synthesis and damaging cell membranes in susceptible microorganisms. Possible side effects include injury to the kidneys and nerve damage that can result in dizziness and deafness.


See study by P. Pringle (2012).



an antibiotic produced by fungi of the genus Actinomyces (Streptomyces). Streptomycin was first obtained in 1944 from A. griseus by the American scientist S. A. Waksman and his colleagues. Chemically, streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic; in acid hydrolysis, the molecule breaks down into streptidine (A; see formula) and streptobiosamine (B). Chemically, streptidine is the hexatomic cyclic alcohol inositol substituted by two guanidine groups. Streptobiosamine is a disaccharide containing a methylamino group. Streptomycin has the properties of a base; it dissolves readily in water and is virtually insoluble in organic solvents. It easily forms salts with various acids. The molecular weight is 581.6. In a dried state, streptomycin remains active for more than two years.

A broad-spectrum antibiotic, streptomycin is active against tuberculosis bacteria and the pathogens of plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and dysentery. It is also active against Escherichia coli, staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, and menin-gococci but is not active against fungi, protozoans, anaerobic microbes, spirochetes, rickettsiae, or viruses. Attaching itself to ribosomes in the bacterial cell, streptomycin interferes with the reading of the genetic code and inhibits the biosynthesis of protein. The primary mechanism of streptomycin’s effect has not been definitely established. Since with the clinical use of streptomycin strains of resistant bacteria are formed, the antibiotic is used in combination with other compounds. Streptomycin is most effective in the treatment of tuberculosis; it is also used in treating meningitis, endocarditis, whooping cough, gonorrhea, and many other diseases. The most serious side effects arising from prolonged use of streptomycin are vestibular disorders and impairment of hearing.

In the USSR, streptomycin is used in various forms, among which are streptomycin sulfate, a calcium chloride complex of streptomycin, the streptomycin salt of saluside (streptosaluside), and certain combinations (streptocillin, streptodimycin). Dihy-drostreptomycin, a product of the partial reduction of streptomycin, is also used. Streptomycin is used in biochemistry in studying the functions of ribosomes and the mechanism of protein biosynthesis.


Khimiia antibiotikov, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.
Kan, G. S. Streptomitsin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Navashin, S. M., and I. P. Fomina. Spravochnikpo antibiolikam, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Molekuliarnye osnovy deistviia antibiotikov. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from English.)
Streptomycin: Nature and Practical Applications. Edited by S. A. Waksman. Baltimore, Md., 1949.



C21H39O12N7 A water-soluble antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces griseus that is used principally in the treatment of tuberculosis.


an antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus: used in the treatment of tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacterial infections. Formula: C21H39N7O12
References in periodicals archive ?
The synergistic effects of neomycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B indicates that they have different mechanisms of action and affect different enzymes and proteins.
The mixed culture was used as an inoculum for three microfuge tubes of PRDB supplemented with nalidixic acid and streptomycin.
Unfortunately, streptomycin sprays for fire blight control are less reliable than in the past," Stockwell says.
In contrast to this, a further five antibiotic-resistant genes have been identified on top of the three identified in the initial assembly, including cephalosporin, monobactam, penicillin and streptomycin, which provides further genetic evidence that the strain is at resistant to at least eight different types of antibiotics.
A study of 224 patients with Buruli ulcer in Benin that evaluated the WHO-recommended regimen of 8 weeks of treatment with rifampin/ streptomycin showed promising results (9).
As long ago as 1957, Schuknecht used intratympanic streptomycin for vestibular ablation in patients with Meniere's disease.
containing penicillin, streptomycin, and dextran-charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum for 2-3 days.
Of the 40 broiler isolates, 20 were resistant to [greater than or equal to]1 of the antimicrobial drugs tested (Table); only 1 was multidrug resistant (resistant to streptomycin, tetracyclin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim).
OTC BB: ALRX), a specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated to developing the next generation of therapeutic products using nanotechnology, today announced that its Antituberculosis product candidate, Streptomycin nanoparticles, will be the subject of a slide presentation under the title "Advances in Treatment and Pathogenesis of Mycobacterial Infections" at the 47th Annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) to be held September 17-20, 2007 in Chicago.
The current treatment recommendations call for antibiotic therapy with an aminoglycoside (either streptomycin or gentamicin) or tetracycline.
Louis, MO, USA), 100 U/L penicillin/100 [micro]g/L streptomycin (GibcoBRL) and 2% steroid-free replacement serum Ultroser SF (Soprachem, France).