student movements

student movements,

designation given to the ideas and activities of student groups involved in social protest. Historically, student movements have been in existence almost as long as universities themselves. As early as the 4th cent., students were engaged in protests against professors with unpopular political views. During the Middle Ages, the universities of Paris and Bologna were often the scene of violent confrontations between townsmen and students. The coming of the modern era saw an increase in student activism. Students played an important role in almost every one of the major revolutions of the 19th and 20th cent. In the United States, student unrest took on political overtones during the American Revolution. Toward the end of the 19th cent. many American students embraced the new theories of socialism and communism being advanced in Europe. The Intercollegiate Socialist Society was formed (1905) to advance the ideas of Marxism. Socialist activity and student protest, often in support of labor struggles and economic justice for the poor, blossomed during the Great Depression. Many students spoke out against McCarthyism in the 1950s and for freedom of speech on campus in the early 1960s. Spurred on by the civil-rights movement, the Vietnam War, and a growing counterculture, groups such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Students for a Democratic SocietyStudents for a Democratic Society
(SDS), in U.S. history, a radical student organization of the 1960s. In the influential Port Huron (Mich.) Statement (1962), the organization, founded in 1960, presented its vision for post–Vietnam War America and called for students to
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 (SDS) rose to prominence. SDS advocated participatory democracy and economic justice, criticizing corporate-military interlocks and unresponsive government bureaucracybureaucracy
, the administrative structure of any large organization, public or private. Ideally bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical authority relations, defined spheres of competence subject to impersonal rules, recruitment by competence, and fixed salaries.
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; their tactics included sit-ins, mass demonstrations, teach-ins and student strikes. The 1970 student strike for peace involved 200 campuses. Police response was often violent, as in the 1970 Jackson State and Kent State killings and at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago. During this same period, Europe and Japan were also scenes of massive student protests, including a nationwide strike of French students and workers (May–June, 1968). Students began protesting overcrowding and repressive conduct codes but soon moved to a critique of a society whose work and culture ethic was based on consumption. South Korean student movements have staged massive protests for more equitable wages and democratic reforms, as have students in China, where many participants in the Tiananmen SquareTiananmen Square,
large public square in Beijing, China, on the southern edge of the Inner or Tatar City. The square, named for its Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen), contains the monument to the heroes of the revolution, the Great Hall of the People, the National Museum of
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 protest have been imprisoned, fled, or gone underground. Recent U.S. student movements have protested apartheid, nuclear weapons, destruction of the environment, and cuts in funding for education.

Bibliography

See L. S. Feuer, Conflict of Generations (1969); E. Abeles, The Student and the University (1969); W. W. Brickman and S. Lehrer, ed., Conflict and Change: The Response to Student Hyperactivism (1970); S. M. Lipset and G. M. Schaflander, Passion and Politics (1971); K. Sale, SDS (1973); W. Breines, Community and Organization in the New Left (1982); G. Katsiaficas, The Imagination of the New Left (1987); S. Simmie and B. Nixon, Tiananmen Square (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Over 50 students have been detained from different universities during May, with claims from student movements that the arrests lack legality.
Inspiring participatory democracy; student movements from Port Huron to today.
Summary: The Lebanese Forces and the March 14 coalition's student movements won uncontested student elections at Notre Dame University Friday.
He said that South Africa should be worried that there were 'so few' whites and Indians in the student movements.
With politics in her blood, she participated in student movements in the 1960s.
She joined the student movements under the rule of King Hassan II.
STUDENT movements are calling for an immediate increase in student grants.
The federation, which welcomed four new student movements from Timor Leste (East Timor), Iraq, Brazil, and Mexico, describes itself as a global grouping of almost 110 national student Christian movements "committed to justice, peace and empowering Christian students to live out gospel values.
These are peasant movements, tribal movements, dalit movements, backward caste/class movements, women's movements, industrial working class movements, student movements, middle class movements, and human rights and environmental movements.
Student Movements for Multiculturalism is the story of efforts to add such courses to offerings at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and the University of California at Berkeley.
The government has paid such daily allowances since 1955 to policemen because of frequent riot police training prompted by sometimes violent labor and student movements.
Staff at Moreton Morrell Agricultural College are trying to restrict student movements and any human or animal which has been to an area near infection will not be let back in.

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