Several types of disfluencies such as repetitions, prolongations, and blocks characterize stuttered
Establishing whether or not Cervantes stuttered
requires overcoming two major obstacles.
Equally important is the fact that Inchbald and van Swieten consider the body's location in space as well as the spaces of the body as critical details in the representation of human speech, stuttered
In her seminal study, Fransella (1972) conducted personal construct therapy with 16 adults who stuttered
, using repertory grids and bi-polar implications grids to assess the relationship between meaningfulness of speaker roles (i.
They found that compared with a matched group of fluent speakers, people who stuttered
had slower visual reactions times, less accurate visual tracking abilities, and impaired visual perception.
The group was categorized into three subgroups: normal fluent controls (seven), children who showed persistent stuttering (eight), and children who previously stuttered
but had recovered and had been fluent for at least 2 years prior to scanning (seven).
The group was subcategorized into normal fluent controls (seven), children who showed persistent stuttering (eight), and children who previously stuttered
but had recovered for at least 2 years prior to scanning (seven).
In the original evaluation of RB, Azrin and Nunn (1974) examined 14 people who stuttered
, 13 of whom had previously received unsuccessful stuttering treatment.
Researchers from various organisations, including the University of Sydney, studied 54 children aged three to six in New Zealand who had all been diagnosed with a frequency of at least 2% of syllables stuttered
He has lived with the problem since he was a child and did not meet another person who stuttered
until his mid-twenties.
Stop" contingent on stuttered
words and "Good" contingent on fluent utterances)
This suggests that chronic stutterers were taught (by themselves or others) to become frightened, ashamed, and guilt ridden when they stuttered
and as a result attempted to avoid these feelings by avoiding stuttering, creating the vicious cycle called "stuttering.