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a world view that ignores the objective approach to reality and denies the existence of objective laws of nature and society. Subjectivism is one of the main epistemological sources of idealism. In essence, it grants primacy to the role played by the subject in various spheres of activity and in the cognitive process above all. The concomitant abstraction of thought, which does not correspond to the nature of objects, leads ultimately to a divorce from reality, subjective blindness, agnosticism, and relativism (see V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 322).

Subjectivism has been expounded by such philosophers as G. Berkeley, D. Hume, and J. G. Fichte; the philosophy of I. Kant is also marked by subjectivist concepts. In the bourgeois philosophy of the 19th and 20th centuries, subjectivism has been a basic principle of such idealist schools of thought as neo-Kan-tianism, empiriocriticism, philosophy of life, pragmatism, neopositivism, and existentialism.

According to Marxist philosophy, which rejects subjectivism, the subject’s active role in practical life and in the cognitive process presupposes the existence of a dialectical relationship between subject and object as well as the existence of an objective reality that has its own laws and is independent of consciousness. Various distortions of Marxism-Leninism have their foundations in subjectivism. Right-wing revisionism, proceeding from a subjectivist understanding of practice, eclectically attempts to combine the principles of Marxist philosophy with subjectivist philosophical conceptions, such as existentialism and pragmatism. The left-wing revision of Marxism-Leninism is an attempt to replace its creative theory with a system of subjectively interpreted dogmas that serve as a justification for voluntarism.

In the political sphere, subjectivism is reflected in policy decisions based on arbitrary, unscientific principles, a contemptuous attitude toward the laws of society, and a belief in the omnipotence of administrative decisions. Genuinely scientific policymaking combines a strictly objective approach to reality with recognition of activism and initiative displayed by the masses, by social classes, and by individuals. This approach is a guarantee against subjectivism in any form.

References in periodicals archive ?
The extreme examples of such subjectivists, such as the late Paul Feyerabend--who wrote several "pregnantly" titled books in the philosophy of science, including Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge (1975), Science in a Free Society (1978) and Farewell to Reason (1987)--deny that there is any approach to obtaining knowledge that may be identified and shown to apply broadly within all the disciplines of human inquiry.
A Subjectivist Theory of a Capital Using Economy," in O'Driscoll, Gerald P.
the error shared by subjectivists and objectivists alike.
Some subjectivists about well-being argue that the state ought to pursue well-being policies, but that it can do so justifiably only if it promotes everyone's wellbeing as they themselves see it.
Despite the fact that the "cultural turn" and postmodern/structural trends were intended to counter the dominance of ideological structures (such as the previously mentioned American ideal), the effect has been a privileging of subjectivist explanations that weakens the efficacy of structural causal explanations--which is most certainly not the intent of many post-structural theorists (see Foucault, 1982, for instance).
Conversely, subjectivists must reject any interventionist policy.
Indeed, you might even want to supplement Aristotle's account of the good life--which, as I noted earlier, is notoriously underspecified on many questions, like how we ought to view the suffering of our loved ones--with a subjectivist account of well-being (that is, what we ought to want for people insofar as we care for them).
There is some evidence that sales manager absolutists tend to be more unfavorable in their assessments of certain controversial business situations than are situationists, subjectivists, or exceptionists (e.
No doubt some objectivist researchers similarly do not entertain qualitative methods, but in my limited experience, this purist philosophical stance is more prevalent among subjectivists.
Simon Schama, who's returning with a sequel to his critically acclaimed ``A History of Britain'' in October, said of historians, ``We're all pig-headed subjectivists, really.
In "Thomas Hobbes: Moral Theorist," 548, Gauthier again takes this passage as evidence that Hobbes is a value subjectivist, albeit one who differs from contemporary subjectivists in taking desire rather than preference as a measure of value.
Duff takes objectivists and subjectivists to agree that criminal liability should be liability for actions.