Subject

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subject

The subject in a sentence or clause is the person or thing doing, performing, or controlling the action of the verb. Only that which has the grammatical function of a noun can be the subject of a clause. This is because it is someone or something that is capable of performing or “controlling” the action of the verb.
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subject

1. any branch of learning considered as a course of study
2. a person who lives under the rule of a monarch, government, etc.
3. an object, figure, scene, etc., as selected by an artist or photographer for representation
4. Philosophy
a. that which thinks or feels as opposed to the object of thinking and feeling; the self or the mind
b. a substance as opposed to its attributes
5. Music a melodic or thematic phrase used as the principal motif of a fugue, the basis from which the musical material is derived in a sonata-form movement, or the recurrent figure in a rondo
6. Logic
a. the term of a categorial statement of which something is predicated
b. the reference or denotation of the subject term of a statement. The subject of John is tall is not the name John, but John himself
7. being under the power or sovereignty of a ruler, government, etc.

Subject

 

a major member of a two-part sentence, designating the performer of the action or bearer of the attribute or state contained in the other major member, the predicate (for example: deti igraiut,“the children play”; trava zelenaia,“the grass is green”; dom postroen,“the house is built”).

In most languages, the subject is expressed by the nominative case of nouns, substantive pronouns (“I,” “he,” “someone”), and numerals (“two,” “five”). The subject may also be a substantivized adjective (bol’noi popravliaetsia,“the sick [man] is getting well”), participle (opozdavshie izvinilis’,“the latecomers apologized”), infinitive (chitat—ego strast’,“to read is his passion”), idiomatic word combinations (khodit kto ugodno,“anyone at all walks around”), word combinations of the type otets s synom (“father with son”), and coordinative and asyndetic sequences (voshli otets i syn,“father and son entered”; gibli molodost’, sily, zdorov’e,“youth, strength, health perished”).

As a grammatical category, the subject is to be distinguished from what is called the logical or semantic subject, which may be expressed also in an oblique case (for example, ei plokho,“she feels bad”; u nas radost’,“we have joy”; byt’ groze,“a storm is brewing”). In the Kartvelian-Caucasian languages and certain others, the subject is expressed by the ergative case.

I. N. KRUCHININA


Subject

 

in the representational arts, an event or situation depicted in a work and often designated in the work’s title. Unlike the theme of a work, the subject is a specific, detailed, graphic, and narrative disclosure of the work’s idea. Historical and genre works of art have particularly complex subjects.


Subject

 

(in Russian, sub”ekt), in linguistics, a term combining the concepts of a grammatical, logical (communicative or psychological), and semantic subject, in ideal cases expressed by the grammatical subject (podlezhashchee) of a sentence. For example, in the Russian sentence Petr vesel (“Peter is happy”), Petr combines the features of the grammatical, logical, and semantic subjects. The concept of the subject is divided into categories because the grammatical, logical, and semantic organization of a sentence may not coincide.

The grammatical, or formal, subject is the subject (podlezhashchee) of a sentence. The logical subject, or theme, corresponds to the point of departure, the basis of the communication, and the information being imparted. Representatives of the psychological school have called the logical subject the psychological subject, meaning the idea present in the speaker’s mind from the beginning. Some linguists distinguish between the communicative and the logical subject. The semantic subject refers to the word designating the possessor of a given quality or the agent of action. In the sentence Veselo Petru (“Peter is happy”), the answer to the question Komu veselo? (“Who is happy?”), veselo is the logical subject and Petru the semantic subject; the grammatical subject is lacking.

REFERENCES

Paul, H. Printsipy istorii iazyka. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from German.)
Panfilov, V. Z. Grammatika i logika. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.
Kolshanskii, G. V. Logika istruktura iazyka. Moscow, 1965.
Mathesius, V. “O tak nazyvaemom aktual’nom chlenenii predlozheniia.” In Prazhskii lingvisticheskii kruzhok. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from Czech.)
Alisova, T. B. Ocherki sintaksisa ital’ianskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1971.
Zolotova, G. A. Ocherk funktsional’nogo sintaksisa russkogo iazyka. Moscow, 1973.

N. D. ARUTIUNOVA


Subject

 

the agent—be it an individual or a social group—of an effected action and of cognition; the source of an activity directed toward an object. In philosophy, the term “subject” has had various meanings. For example, Aristotle used the term to designate individual being as well as matter, or formless substance; for medieval scholasticism, subjects were something real and inherent in things, while objects existed only in the mind.

The modern interpretation of subject begins with R. Descartes, whose sharp juxtaposition of subject and object was the starting point of the analysis of cognition and, in particular, served as a basis for establishing the reliability of knowledge; with the subject seen as the moving principle in the cognitive process, the way was opened for studying the conditions and forms of this process and its subjective premises. I. Kant took the next important step along this path. He revealed some fundamental laws that govern the subject’s internal organization and make it possible to attain universal and necessary knowledge—for example, the doctrine of categories as forms regulating thought; the principle of categorical synthesis; and the concept of the subject as something generic, embracing the entire historical experience of cognition.

G. Hegel worked out an idealistic interpretation of the social and historical nature of the thinking subject. For Hegel, cognition was a suprapersonal process based on the identity of subject, understood as absolute spirit, and object. The pre-Marxist materialists, whose interpretation was a psychologistic one, regarded the subject as an isolated individual whose cognitive faculties are biologically rooted and who only passively reflects external reality.

Dialectical materialism has radically expanded the concept of the subject by linking it directly to the category of practice. In their view the subject is the agent of an effected action and not merely of cognition. Thus the subject’s social and historical nature is newly clarified: according to Marxism, an individual is a self-conscious subject to the extent that he has gained some degree of mastery over human culture—as represented, for example, by the tools of object-oriented activity, forms of language, logical categories, aesthetic norms, and moral values. The subject’s activity is the determining condition that transforms one or another fragment of objective reality into a given object, depending on the subject’s particular form of activity. The assumption here is that the subject, rather than being an entity complete in itself, is an agent that continuously and creatively transforms the environment. The materialist interpretation, having demonstrated the creative nature of the subject, made it possible for Marxism to reveal what is the true subject of history—namely, the popular masses, who are the chief force in the creative and revolutionary transformation of culture and of society as a whole.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Tezisy o Feierbakhe.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3.
Lenin, V. I. Filosofskie tetradi. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29.
Lektorskii, V. A. Problema sub”ektn i ob”ekta v klassicheskoi i sovremennoi burzhuaznoi filosofü. Moscow, 1965.
Kopnin, P. V. Gnoseologicheskie i logicheskie osnovy nauki. Moscow, 1974.

V. A. LEKTORSKII

subject

(programming)
In subject-oriented programming, a subject is a collection of classes or class fragments whose class hierarchy models its domain in its own, subjective way. A subject may be a complete application in itself, or it may be an incomplete fragment that must be composed with other subjects to produce a complete application. Subject composition combines class hierarchies to produce new subjects that incorporate functionality from existing subjects.
References in classic literature ?
In other words, while he had implicit faith in the ability of Balaam's ass to speak, he was somewhat skeptical on the subject of a bear's singing; and yet he had been assured of the latter, on the testimony of his own exquisite organs.
I know that most men think differently from myself; but those whose lives are by profession devoted to the study of these or kindred subjects content me as little as any.
When looking over a list of men's names in a foreign language, as of military officers, or of authors who have written on a particular subject, I am reminded once more that there is nothing in a name.
My Dear Father,--As you well know, I have not always been an enthusiast on the subject of teaching.
Come, come," cried Emma, feeling this to be an unsafe subject, "I must beg you not to talk of the sea.
With such a knowledge as this, it was impossible for Elinor to feel easy on the subject.
The public are, in general, very ready to adopt the opinion, that he who has pleased them in one peculiar mode of composition, is, by means of that very talent, rendered incapable of venturing upon other subjects.
Being subjects either of an absolute or limited monarchy, they have endeavored to heighten the advantages, or palliate the evils of those forms, by placing in comparison the vices and defects of the republican, and by citing as specimens of the latter the turbulent democracies of ancient Greece and modern Italy.
And in the same way I can estimate the shape of any of my Male subjects by the sense of sound.
We must not, therefore, at all costs keep to the received legends, which are the usual subjects of Tragedy.
And whoever shall fortify his town well, and shall have managed the other concerns of his subjects in the way stated above, and to be often repeated, will never be attacked without great caution, for men are always adverse to enterprises where difficulties can be seen, and it will be seen not to be an easy thing to attack one who has his town well fortified, and is not hated by his people.
With luxury a king nourishes his subjects, and honors them.