sublimation


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sublimation

(sŭblĭmā`shən), change of a solid substance directly to a vapor without first passing through the liquid state. The term is also used to describe the reverse process of the gas changing directly to the solid again upon cooling. An example of sublimation is seen when iodine, on being heated, changes from a dark solid to a purplish vapor that condenses directly to a crystalline solid upon striking a cool surface. In this way pure crystals of iodine are prepared. Some other substances, e.g., mercuric chloride, can be prepared by sublimation. Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice, sublimes at −78.5°C; (−109.3°F;). Sublimation also occurs when air saturated with water vapor is suddenly cooled below the freezing point of water. Frost and snowflakes are thus formed by water changing directly from the gaseous to the solid state.

sublimation,

in psychology: see defense mechanismdefense mechanism,
in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions.
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; psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
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.

sublimation

see DEFENCE MECHANISMS.

Sublimation

 

the transition of a substance from the crystalline state directly into the gaseous state without melting; it occurs with the absorption of heat (first-order phase transition).

Sublimation is a type of vaporization and is possible over the entire range of temperatures and pressures at which the solid and gaseous phases coexist. The energy required for sublimation is called the heat of sublimation, or latent heat of sublimation. The relationship between the heat of sublimation, the saturation vapor pressure above the solid, and the temperature under equilibrium conditions is given by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Sublimation of metal crystals leads to the formation of mon-atomic vapors. Ionic crystals, upon evaporation, often form polar molecules in the gaseous phase. Molecular crystals form vapors consisting of molecules.

The main kinetic characteristic of sublimation is the rate of sublimation, which is the mass of a substance that sublimes per unit time. The dependence of the limiting rate of sublimation of substances on the temperature and the properties of the gaseous phase is the basis for selection of materials for heat-shielding of spacecraft. Sublimation with the subsequent growth of pure crystals in a gaseous medium is widely used for the purification of solids.


Sublimation

 

in psychology, the psychological process by which the energy of affective drives is transformed and transferred to goals of social action and cultural creativity. The concept of sublimation was introduced by S. Freud in 1900. In Freudian psychoanalysis, sublimation is viewed as one form of transformation of a drive—such as the libido—and as the opposite of repression. In social psychology, sublimation is associated with the processes of socialization. The problems of sublimation are a subject of special study in such areas as child psychology, sports psychology, and the psychology of creativity.

sublimation

[‚səb·lə′mā·shən]
(psychology)
A defense mechanism whereby the energies of undesirable instinctual cravings and impulses are converted into socially acceptable activities.
(thermodynamics)
The process by which solids are transformed directly to the vapor state or vice versa without passing through the liquid phase.
References in periodicals archive ?
The dye sublimation process is not exactly new, although Toda will be the first in the country to hold such an exhibit.
Today, the key markets for Hilord include water-based dye sublimation inks, solvent inks, UV inks, UV-LED inks, and coatings.
Freud also implied that something akin to sublimation was at the heart of the very existence of the ego.
The sublimation operator can be marked in a more suggestive manner (SUBL).
The initially coarse granules will gradually reduce in size due to the sublimation of the connecting ice structure in between the frozen material.
The motion and the future that emerge from sublimation depend upon the privileging of three interrelated conceptual operations: a model of truth based on a strict separation of thought and experience, an assumption that this truth is timeless and valid for all future experience, and a suppression of materiality and the body that legitimizes the distinction between thought and experience as well as being the precondition for thinking of any truth as outside of time.
Dye sublimation, a dye-transfer process that got its start in the 1960s for use in textiles, has advanced in recent years to provide wear-resistant, full-color surface decoration of flat objects like mouse pads and tiles.
One of the newer trends in uniforms is the incorporation of sublimation printing, a process that places a sublimation transfer printed on paper onto fabric and then applying heat (usually with a flatbed heat press) to both.
According to Maintain, the French School did an immense service to the Church by insisting with admirable zeal on the sanctity toward which the priest has the duty to strive, but at the same time it promoted an illusory sublimation of the priesthood through a serious misunderstanding of its true grandeur.
It will also cover the technologies involved in the customization process, including heat transfer, digital printing, screen printing, engraving, embossing and sublimation.
With print speeds of just 10 seconds, the new sublimation thermal transfer printer provides highly detailed images with extremely sharp resolution.