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Any layer underlying the true soil.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

References in periodicals archive ?
There is a close correspondence with a Balkan word considered of ancient substratal autochthonous origin and with Carpathian distribution (Neroznak 1978: 204, Alinei 2003: 51): Rum, Megrum baci 'older shepherd, cheese-maker', Arum baciu, bagiu, Alb bac 'same', Med bac 'shepherd in charge of a summer mountain pasture', bacilo 'pen, enclosure in the mountains where milking is done and cheese made', also Srb and Croat bac'shepherd', bacija 'pen for sheep', PI bacza 'Tatra mountain shepherd', 'head of the young shepherds', reg.
The Rumanian Jarlna 'field under cultivation' (not found in Albanian) was considered by Russu (apud Illyes 232) to be a Balkan substratal remnant, although Neroznak (1978: 204) proposes a Latin origin for it, i.
As toponyms are the most likely traces of a disappeared substratum, one would except to find them if there is other substratal influence present.
In principle it is quite common that language shift occurs in a small low status group that lives in the proximity of a high status group and the outcome variety has strong substratal features.
12) The absence of Norse influence may perhaps explain why Brittonic substratal features characteristic of the VP, such as the rise of Verbal Aspect (imperfective/progressive) and of the DO-periphrasis (causative, emphatic, habitual) were able to develop by transfer in the South West and not elsewhere.
Schrijver 1997: 310 now suggests in passing that the unstable [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the Greek words for 'mole' may indicate that they originate in a specific (if still unidentifiable) substratal language, some of whose properties he attempts to elucidate.
In what follows, I list and expatiate on what I take to be the most substratal aims of education for Jefferson.