substrate


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substrate

1. Biochem the substance upon which an enzyme acts
2. Electronics the semiconductor base on which other material is deposited, esp in the construction of integrated circuits

Substrate

 

(1) In biology, the base—an object or substance—to which sedentary animals and plants, including microorganisms, are attached.

(2) In biochemistry, a substance acted upon by enzymes. The term “substrate” refers to the primary and intermediate products of metabolism (metabolites) that take part in enzymatic transformations. Chemically, substrates may vary from simple molecules of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to highly complex molecules of proteins and nucleic acids.

During an enzymatic reaction, the substrate is activated and combines with the enzyme to form an enzyme-substrate complex, which decomposes and releases the products of the reaction. As a rule, a given enzyme activates only few substrates, a phenomenon called substrative specificity. Consequently, the name of a substrate is often the source for the name of the corresponding enzyme. For example, the enzyme that splits D-glucose-1-phosphate into glucose and phosphate is called D-glucose-1-phosphatase.

The substrative specificity of enzymes is determined by the structure of their active centers; substrates can directly affect the formation of these centers. The concentration of substrates is a factor in the regulation of enzymatic activity. Substrates and their analogues—substances similar in structure to the substrates —often induce the biosynthesis of the corresponding enzymes. Some analogues of substrates are specific inhibitors of enzymes.

(3) In microbiology, nutrient media for the growth of microorganisms.

N. N. CHERNOV

substrate

[′səb‚strāt]
(biochemistry)
The substance with which an enzyme reacts.
(ecology)
The foundation to which a sessile organism is attached.
(electronics)
The physical material on which a microcircuit is fabricated; used primarily for mechanical support and insulating purposes, as with ceramic, plastic, and glass substrates; however, semiconductor and ferrite substrates may also provide useful electrical functions.
(engineering)
Basic surface on which a material adheres, for example, paint or laminate.
(organic chemistry)
A compound with which a reagent reacts.

substrate

1. The underlying material to which a finish is applied, or by which it is supported.
2. A material upon which an adhesive, film, coating, etc., is applied.

substrate

(hardware)
The body or base layer of an integrated circuit, onto which other layers are deposited to form the circuit. The substrate is usually Silicon, though Sapphire is used for certain applications, particularly military, where radiation resistance is important. The substrate is originally part of the wafer from which the die is cut. It is used as the electrical ground for the circuit.

substrate

The base layer of a structure such as a chip, multichip module (MCM), printed circuit board or disk platter. Silicon is the most widely used substrate for chips. Fiberglass (FR4) is mostly used for printed circuit boards, and ceramic is used for MCMs. Disk substrates are typically aluminum, glass or plastic.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, each plant should be matched to its own corresponding seedling substrate, and producers should not use a universal substrate for different seedlings (Luo et al.
For nursery production, any substrate low in organic matter is not suitable due to low moisture holding capacity.
Many companies are able to design the substrate using prepreg materials and avoid use of more expensive buildup substrates, but as package roadmaps increasingly show finer bump pitch, greater use of buildup substrates is anticipated.
Ideally, the process to be followed is cleaning the substrate and profiling it to maximize mechanical adhesion, followed by a chemical conversion of the substrate surface to slow oxidization and improve adhesion.
For example, Pleurotus eryngii could be cultivated successfully on substrate contained in bags, bottles or trays with or without a casing layer (Tan et al.
Replacing large, bulky connectors with patterning interconnects that have fine-pitch edge mounted units greatly reduces substrate size.
Equipped with a precision mechanism based on the company's unique polishing films (Nano Tape) and polishing liquids, the washer uses high-pressure water jet to clean polished TFT substrates.
Parylene can be applied to many substrates, including glass, metal, resin, plastics, ceramic, ferrite and silicon, and even powdered and granular substances.
No-substrate controls (2 L) were maintained for each experiment and did not receive any chlorinated substrate additions.
The raw data from the measurement includes the effect of the substrate material and the interfacial thermal resistances between the sensor plates and the specimen.
Until now, the only method to reliably align the molecules involved rubbing a polymer substrate with a velvet cloth.