Sulfonation


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Related to Sulfonation: Sulphonation

sulfonation

[‚səl·fə′nā·shən]
(chemistry)
Substitution of ‒SO3 H groups (from sulfuric acid) for hydrogen atoms, for example, conversion of benzene, C6H6, into benzenesulfonic acid, C6H5SO3H.

Sulfonation

 

the substitution of a sulfo group (—SO3H) for a hydrogen atom attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound under the action of sulfuric acid or oleum. Sulfonation of aromatic compounds is most common—for example,

C6H6 + H2SO4 → C6H5SO3H + H2O

In the case of aliphatic compounds, the sulfo group is usually introduced indirectly, for example, by the exchange of a halogen atom in halide derivatives (1) or by the action of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on hydrocarbons upon irradiation with ultraviolet light (sulfochlorination), with subsequent hydrolysis (2):

(1) CH2═CH—CH2Cl + NaHSO3 → CH2═CH—CH2SO3H + NaCl

(In these formulas R represents a hydrocarbon radical—for example, an alkyl.)

Compounds that are not resistant to acids are sulfonated by sulfur trioxide bound in a complex—for example, in sulfur trioxide-dioxane:

Sulfonation and sulfochlorination are important industrial processes that are widely used in the production of sulfonic acids and ion-exchange resins.

B. L. DIATKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Functional group test, decrease in iodine number, increase in acid number and IR spectra confirms the sulfonation on the benzene ring (probably at ortho and para positions).
In the aforementioned studies, post sulfonation technologies were performed on existing materials, and sulfonating reagents were introduced into PSF polymers to add hydrophilic sulfonic acid groups.
Rotomolders generally agree that sulfonation appears to be the most viable immediate answer to their needs.
This research investigates the anthraquinone (AQ) catalyzed chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP) of aspen wood by using an interstage sulfonation process and compares the quality of pulp with that of black spruce thermomechanical pulp (TMP).
The sulfonation of methyl esters also provides good quality surfactants with considerable detergency.
Most recently, Stepan has agreed to acquire a 30 KT/yr sulfonation plant in Bahia, Brazil and closing is pending the appropriate approvals.
Sulfonation is also one of the most common methods employed for surface modification of polyethylene [13].
In this study, we found that several polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs) inhibited the sulfonation of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-BaP) by human liver cytosol and some cDNA-expressed sulfotransferases.
Dais accomplishes partial (30-60%) sulfonation of the cast film using its own patented process.
zinc salt of the sulfonated ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer formed by the sulfonation of the pendent unsaturation in the thermoplastic EPDM followed by neutralization of the resultant EPDM sulfonic acid using the procedure described by Makowski et al (ref 13).
For the CWRT collaborative project, the demanding liquid sulfur trioxide sulfonation of toluene was selected as the model system.
The purchase of a sulfonation plant in Bahia, Brazil provides us with additional capacity to serve the growing consumer and functional markets throughout Brazil.