Enas Nashef, Associate Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, leverages a type of free radical known as superoxide ion
, to destroy toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds present in wastewater in the same way that free radicals in our body damage cells; by stealing electrons from molecules wherever they can.
This oxidative damage is found to be handled primarily by reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide ion
, and hydrogen peroxide (4).
On the other hand, the intracellular superoxide ion
was detected with dihydroergotamine (DHE) from Invitrogen Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR, USA) at 37[degrees]C for 30 min.
Free radical starters are compounds that induce the formation of the superoxide ion
Superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme converts superoxide ion
produced under stressed conditions to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen thus playing important role in defense mechanisms (Harinasut et al.
The interaction of rutin with superoxide ion
and ferrous ions and the reaction of quercetin with lipid peroxy radicals were also studied.
was generated in vitro as described by Paoletti et al.
2] is exposed to UV light of a wavelength below 385 nanometers in the presence of water vapor, two highly reactive substances are formed: hydroxyl radicals [OH] and a superoxide ion
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
About 4% of the total oxygen that is consumed by animal mitochondria during aerobic respiration undergoes a further univalent reduction to form superoxide ion
(Boveris and Cardenas, 1982), and exposure to elevated temperature increases superoxide ion
production in animal mitochondria (Burdon et al.
Each superoxide ion
can be thought of as an oxygen molecule, made up of two oxygen atoms, with an extra electron to give the ion a negative charge.
Consistent with this, the 2-hydroxycatechol of estradiol was found to be oxidized by Cu + ions to produce superoxide ion
, hydrogen peroxide, and singlet oxygen, and its DNA-strand breaking activity was diminished by singlet oxygen quenchers but not by hydroxyl radical quenchers .
The mechanism of metal ion toxicity is partially understood but it is evident that they can produce ROS which includes nitrogen oxide (NO), superoxide ions
(O2-), hydroxyl (OH) and H2O2 with the help of Fenton/ Haber-Weiss reaction (Spector, 2000).