surrogate mother


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surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

References in periodicals archive ?
All advertising that a person is willing to be a surrogate mother or that someone is looking for a surrogate mother, is prohibited.
But they are also found in smaller inland villages where they have become an important source of income for the surrogate mothers and their families, and staff who work in these facilities.
Gestational surrogacy uses embryo transfer so the surrogate mother is carrying a baby that is not genetically hers.
Surrogate mothers (hired wombs) are no longer science fictions.
In 2007 the Yamadas, Japanese couple, traveled to India to hire a surrogate mother to bear a child for them.
An arrest warrant had been pending against the surrogate mother since it was issued by a court in the republic last January.
Surrogacy is dehumanizing for the surrogate mother and the child.
Russian legislation does not establish any penalties for improper performance and contract breach by a surrogate mother.
Twins" Now proud dads to their two sons, the birth comes three years after a surrogate mother miscarried their unborn child.
Add to that the recent case of a surrogate mother refusing to honour her arrangement because she wanted to keep her baby.
Thus, she resorted to the services of a volunteer surrogate mother, an Israeli woman who conceived via artificial insemination performed in India using sperm donated by an Israeli man, and returned to Israel where she gave birth to a healthy girl.