surrogate mother


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surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

References in periodicals archive ?
The baby is now being raised in a family of two other kids, his surrogate mother, her husband and parents.
Surrogate mothers, too, are not empowered to make informed choices as their decisions are solely driven by the need for money," said Lopamudra Mohanty of the WCD ministry.
The experience of becoming a surrogate mother is a huge exploitation in the hands of the middlemen brokers who cheated on me.
obtain the commissioning father's informed consent that the results of these tests may be made available to the surrogate mother and the competent person who will perform the artificial fertilisation on the surrogate mother.
As per guidelines in India, Assisted Reproductive Techniques allow the use of surrogate mothers but the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act forbids testing to determine the gender of a foetus.
A letter from the embassy of the foreign country in India or the foreign ministry of the country should be enclosed with the visa application stating clearly that the country recognises surrogacy and that the child to be born to the commissioning couple through the Indian surrogate mother will be permitted entry into the country as their biological child.
The procedure uses In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) technology, except for the fact that the embryo is planted in the uterus of a surrogate mother, who can successfully carry the pregnancy to term.
The wild boars will stay with their surrogate mother at the sanctuary for three months, before being released to a wider enclosure.
THE method of surrogacy the couple are using is called gestational surrogacy, where the embryo is implanted into a surrogate mother.
Koa's owner Tina Case, of San Francisco, said: "Koa is like their surrogate mother.
The elephant will serve as a surrogate mother, giving birth to a baby that's a c/one, or an exact genetic copy, of the ancient mammoth.
The identity of their son's surrogate mother is being protected by the new parents.