surrogate mother

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surrogate mother,

a woman who agrees, usually by contract and for a fee, to bear a child for a couple who are childless because the wife is infertile or physically incapable of carrying a developing fetus. Often the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child, conceiving it by means of artificial inseminationartificial insemination,
technique involving the artificial injection of sperm-containing semen from a male into a female to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination is often used in animals to multiply the possible offspring of a prized animal and for the breeding of endangered
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 with sperm from the husband. In gestational surrogacy, the wife is fertile but incapable of carrying a growing fetus; the child is conceived by in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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 using the wife's eggs and her husband's sperm, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the surrogate mother's uterus.

Surrogate motherhood has raised complex ethical and legal issues, and lawsuits over custody after the child's birth have resulted from both types of surrogacy. In the highly publicized Baby M case (1986–88), Mary Beth Whitehead, the surrogate (and biological) mother, sued William and Elizabeth Stern, the baby's father and his wife, for custody of the child. Although the surrogate mother was not awarded custody in the Baby M case, she was granted visitation rights. Several European countries and a number of states have passed laws banning paid surrogacy.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, in our opinion, surrogate motherhood, considered as defined here, cannot be applied to the surrogacy specified in Dignitas Personae, since in this document the child born is adopted by the mother who carries the pregnancy, and on no occasion does she gestate it to then donate it.
Should this couple qualify for surrogate motherhood in terms of the threshold requirement?
However, institute of surrogate motherhood has more advantages than disadvantages.
e) have entered into the surrogate motherhood agreement for altruistic reasons and not for commercial reasons;
Keller, Comment, Surrogate Motherhood Contracts in Louisiana: To Ban or to Regulate?
See Laura Bertilotti, The Prohibition of Surrogate Motherhood in France, N.
Jaiswal, "Commercial Surrogacy in India"; Markens, Surrogate Motherhood, 23.
In Quebec, debates suggest that there was less recognition of the potential merits of surrogate motherhood, and that legislators were concerned with surrogacy's potential harmful effects for surrogate mothers and the children born through these agreements.
Two days after I reminded the position of the Holy Synod [of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church] about surrogate motherhood, and I was duly abused, the media exploded with the news that a child was offered for sale on the Internet.
Indeed surrogate motherhood has its positive and negative factors.
Healthcare professionals specialising in assisted conception are often confronted with practical scenarios for which the Children's Act 38 of 2005, which regulates surrogate motherhood, does not provide clear answers.
This article critiques the legal and political discourse that has circulated around the issue of surrogate motherhood in Canada and Quebec.