The classic cognitive load theory (CLT: Paas, Renkl, & Sweller
, 2003; Plass, Moreno, & Brunken, 2010; Sweller
, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998; van Merrienboer & Sweller
, 2005) infers that free cognitive processing capacity is the difference between the working memory resources and the total load consisting of intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load.
Therefore, teaching strategies should balance intrinsic CL and enhance the extraneous CL with appropriate instructional procedures (Kalyuga, Ayres, Chandler, & Sweller
This indicates that our intervention was efficient in helping students arrive at correct answers with relatively low mental effort (Kalyuga & Sweller
Discovery-based learning environments often result in students becoming confused and frustrated and it is an inefficient style of instruction characterized by frequent false starts (Kirschner, Sweller
, and Clark 2006).
Esta creencia promueve el uso de multiples recursos para la instruccion con el objetivo de proveer a los estudiantes de un conocimiento linguistico mas enriquecedor (Yali, Chandler y Sweller
From the existing literature (Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008; Sweller
, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998), three types of cognitive load have been defined.
Este principio trata de evitar que en los entornos de aprendizaje el alumno deba dividir su atencion e integrar mentalmente informacion procedente de diversas fuentes (Ayres & Sweller
A plethora of laboratory studies have shown that including the study of worked examples during problem-solving practice improves learning (Sweller
, 1999; Sweller
& Cooper, 1985).
2006), rapid dynamic assessment (Kaluga and Sweller
, 2005), and adaptive and collaborative learning (Ruiz et al.
Then I discovered piggin' strings, and they worked even sweller
In one of the most widely cited and debated criticisms of PBL, Kirschner, Sweller
, & Clark (2006) argue vehemently that PBL is a pedagogical failure due to the inherent deficiencies of minimal guidance and that there is no credible research supporting its use.
However, according to the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller
& Chandler, 1994; Sweller
, 1999; and Sweller
, Paas & Renkl, 2003, cited in Tyler-Smith, 2006), adult learners could be confronted with some limitations regarding e-learning as "having limited digital literacy experience and being generally far less adept at decoding the multimedia interfaces involved with e-learning than their younger counterparts" (Tyler-Smith, 2006, p.