Sympodium

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sympodium

[sim′pōd·ē·əm]
(botany)
A branching system in trees in which the main axis is composed of successive secondary branches, each representing the dominant fork of a dichotomy.

Sympodium

 

the axial organ of a plant (root or stem), consisting of successive secondary axes and arising as a result of topping during growth and branching.

With dichotomous branching, which characterizes lower plants and a number of higher sporebearing plants (for example club mosses), the sympodium arises as a result of the more intensive growth of one of the bifurcated branches and the sideward displacement of the branch at each of the repeated stages of branching. In lateral branching, which is a feature of most higher plants (including all flowering plants), the sympodium forms as a result of the cessation of top growth of the root or the shoot; a lateral root or shoot arises that generally grows in the same direction as the displaced element. Curtailment of activity at the tip of the meristem can be caused by death resulting from external damage (desiccation, freezing, cutting), by the formation of an apical flower or inflorescence that includes the entire tip of the meristem, or by the deflection of the main axis away from the original growth direction.

The trunks and large branches of most hardwood trees and shrubs are typical sympodia, as are the rhizomes of most perennial herbs. Topping occurs in these organs many times, sometimes as often as once a year. Inflorescences that are formed according to the same principle as sympodia are called cymose. The sympodium is most clearly seen in monochasia.

T. I. SEREBRIAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Sympodial angiosperms with adventitious roots inevitably have patterns of vessel evolution different from those seen in monopodial woody angiosperms with taproots.
Cymbidiums on the other hand are sympodial orchids, which are characterised by creeping rhizomes, with growing points.
Sympodial structure of spikelets in the tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae).
Table 1: Effects of cropping systems and irrigation interval regimes on plant height, number of leaf and sympodial per plant and yield attributes of lentil Treatment Plant Number of Number of height leaf sympodial (cm) (palnt-1) (palnt-1) Cropping systems Sole lentil 42.
A range of attractive hybrids, varieties or cultivars of sympodial orchids, for instance, the genus Oncidium or Ascocenda, is important in the cut-flower and potted-plant industries [10].
There have been long-standing discussions about the monopodial or sympodial construction of the spikelet.
Bower later (1916) in a more important paper confirms and elaborates on the views of earlier writers that the leaf of the ferns and other primitive vascular plants is fundamentally dichotomous in organization, and that the monopodial pinnate leaf is derived from dichotomy through a sympodial stage.
giving the appearance of a basal trichotomy, although the sympodial origin of this trichotomy is often still detectable (e.
Floral development in Greyia flanaganii with notes on inflorescence initiation and sympodial branching.
The LFY/FLO homologs are essential for normal development in plants with cymose inflorescences (the sympodial growth of the Solonaceae) and racemose inflorescences (simple and compound).
Stele with sympodial architecture: 0 = absent; 1 = present.