Syndactyly


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syndactyly

[sin′dakt·əl·ē]
(anatomy)
The condition characterized by union of two or more digits, as in certain birds and mammals; it is a familial anomaly in humans.

Syndactyly

 

in humans, a congenital deformation of the hand or foot characterized by the adhesion of two or more digits; a type of developmental anomaly.

Different types of syndactyly are distinguished, depending on the extent of adhesion. With complete syndactyly the connection extends along the entire length of the digits, and with partial syndactyly the connection is limited to the base of the involved digits. Membranous syndactyly is most commonly partial and is manifested by the appearance of a thin, cutaneous membrane at the base of the digits. With simple syndactyly the digits are connected along their entire length by a thick, cutaneous intersection, and with complicated syndactyly the digital bones are fused. The most serious form is terminal syndactyly, which is characterized by the adhesion of only the tips of the digits. This condition is accompanied by the severe deformation of the digits and the loss of their function.

Syndactyly is treated surgically.

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The diagnosis should be considered in growth-restricted babies with cutaneous 3-4 syndactyly and other suggestive features.
Syndactyly has to be operated in stages within 1-2 years age10 by hand or plastic surgeon in type 3, 4 for functioning of the hand specially thumb and little finger Syndactyly of feet is usually left alone.
Congenital syndactyly has been observed in dogs, cats, sheep, pigs, and cows [3-8].
SHFM-4 exhibit variable phenotype of split hands and feet malformation with missing phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals along with or without syndactyly and webbing.
All the pregnant mice were allowed to give birth to litters which were observed to detect cleft palate, septal defect, limbs ectrodactyly/ syndactyly and any other sign of abnormality.
In addition, in this close group a high frequency of malformations such as round shaped eyes and orbits, syndactyly, malformed pinnae, nostrils, lips and jaws was observed, while no such gross abnormalities were seen in the two other experimental groups.
some of the procedures most frequently performed by plastic surgeons at the University of Cape Town Hospital complex Carpal tunnel release Upper limb tendon repair Upper limb nerve and artery repair Syndactyly and polydactyly correction ORIF hand fracture Cleft palate repair Cleft lip repair Skin graft for burns Flap for lower limb trauma Soft-tissue reconstruction/repair of facial trauma ORIF mandible Nasal fracture repair ORIF Le Fort fracture Prominent ear correction Breast reduction Breast reconstruction (implant or flap) Scar revision and contracture release Fat grafting Free flap for head and neck reconstruction Excision and reconstruction of skin cancers/other skin lesions Flap coverage of pressure sore ORIF = open reduction internal fixation.
The baby was also found to have a narrow thorax, short fingers with postaxial polydactyly in both upper limbs and right lower limb, with syndactyly in right upper and lower limb (figures 1,2,3).
Findings on Dilation and Evacuation (D&E) Examination Suspicious for Specific Genetic Abnormality Genetic Abnormality Finding on D&E Turner sydrome Fetal hydrops, prominent dorsal edema of (monosomy X) hands and feet, aortic coarctation Trisomy 18 Overlapping fingers, rocker-bottom feet, polydactyly Trisomy 13 Severe craniofacial anomalies, holoprosencephaly, midline cleft lip, abnormal skull base, polydactyly, splenopancreatic fusion, heart defects Trisomy 21 Wide space between first and second toes, clinodactyly, single palmar crease, heart defects, duodenal atresia Triploidy 3-4 syndactyly
Although complete duplication of an entire digit can occur, central polydactyly is often hidden within a syndactyly and referred to as synpolydactyly.
Other features that can be associated with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome are polydactyly [13], syndactyly, seizures and hemimegalencephaly [14], spina bifida, lymphatic obstruction, chronic venous insufficiency, limb ulceration, and thromboembolism [15].
Physical examination revealed short stature and an incision scar with yellow-greenish purulent material at a recent surgical site on the right leg, pes equinovalgus, right foot oligodactyly, syndactyly between the third and fourth fingers, and oligodactyly as a bifid digit on the left foot.