synecdoche

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synecdoche

(sĭnĕk`dəkē), figure of speech, a species of metaphormetaphor
[Gr.,=transfer], in rhetoric, a figure of speech in which one class of things is referred to as if it belonged to another class. Whereas a simile states that A is like B, a metaphor states that A is B or substitutes B for A.
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, in which a part of a person or thing is used to designate the whole—thus, "The house was built by 40 hands" for "The house was built by 20 people." See metonymymetonymy
, figure of speech in which an attribute of a thing or something closely related to it is substituted for the thing itself. Thus, "sweat" can mean "hard labor," and "Capitol Hill" represents the U.S. Congress.
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Synecdoche

 

a figure of speech and variant of metonymy by which the whole is made known by means of a part. There are two types of synecdoche. In the first, the whole is represented by a, part, which replaces the whole. For example, “Hey, beard! how can I get from here to Pliushkin’s?” (N. Gogol). Here the meanings of “man with a beard,” “bearded one” (“villein”), and “beard” are combined. In the second type of synecdoche, one grammatical number is used instead of the other: “And until dawn the Frenchman [the French] could be heard rejoicing” (M. Iu. Lermontov).

References in periodicals archive ?
To Froude, the Caribbean islands 'stand like a string of jewels around the neck of the Caribbean Sea', (36) a visual image that enforces a specific figural relationship between the West Indies and the British Empire by drawing a clear parallel with India, the ascendant imperial synecdoche in the late nineteenth century.
The synecdoche verges on the literal in this telling.
Since each type is a synecdoche for the entire Gospel scheme," he observes, "it possesses the property of being able to generate the entire vision of time, causality, and salvation contained in that scheme.
38) Nature appears in this poetry in a variety of guises: as the background to the action, as a comfort and idyllic solace to the men; as a synecdoche of memory, and as an indifferent onlooker (for the latter see, for example, Richard Aldington, "Impotent," Charles Sorley, "All the hills and vales along," Carl Sandburg, "Grass," Wallace Stevens, "The Death of a Soldier," all in Jon Stallworthy, ed.
Spring Fragrance's letter to her husband, her interest lies in helping two cultures understand each other, and she brings her lovers together as synecdoches for cross-cultural union and appreciation.
Although the metaphors, metonymies, synecdoches and oxymora operate predominantly within the framework of provocation, dominance and suppression, they in the end also leave room for the ultimate discovery of reciprocity and exchange.
At one level, head and hand are synecdoches for the process by which bandits envision and enact the separation of the public from its money.
This is done through a number of categorization devices, including metaphors, metonymies and synecdoches, in the form of a part standing for the whole (pars pro toto) or a whole standing for the part (totum pro parte).
For these reasons it is important to read the bees and their hives not merely metaphorically and symbolically, but as synecdoches as well.
The concentration of labor and capital intensified the recurrent and sometimes violent labor conflict, for which names like Haymarket, Homestead, and Pullman still serve as synecdoches.
In this sense, each of the victims and each of the survivors are synecdoches of Jewish life in Buenos Aires: actors in a social drama whose cohesiveness was challenged by the 1994 bombing.
Roman Jakobson remarks that "[f]ollowing the path of contiguous relations, the Realist author metonymically digresses from the plot to the atmosphere and from the characters to the setting in space and time" (130), suggesting that the material environment of Tolstoy's novel provides a network of synecdoches whereby the characters may be judged via their homes and, more specifically, their home decoration.