The Synoptic model
for the Rhine, which is used when LUBW subject area flood protection Upper Rhine, flood forecasting center in both flood and in medium and low water situations on the Rhine under operational conditions, is the official instrument to the effectiveness of the Franco-German flood protection measures (cultural weirs polder, repositioning of dams, etc.
Our findings are compatible with the general synoptic model for outbreak insects proposed by Southwood and Comins (1976), in which low-density populations are maintained by predators or parasitoids with constrained abilities to respond to increases in the density of their prey.
The synoptic model proposes that the generalist predator or parasitoid stabilizes the prey populations at low density by way of a negative feedback (positive density dependence) between prey density and predation rates.
The synoptic model contrasts with previous descriptions of the dynamics of gypsy moth populations in Yugoslavia, which appear to be regulated by parasitoids (Sisojevic 1975, Montgomery and Wallner 1988) and exhibit delayed density dependence (Turchin 1990).
Our data suggest that such simple models are inadequate and that gypsy moth populations are maintained by different factors at high and low density, as in the synoptic model (Southwood and Comins 1976).
The first step of the synoptic model, specification of the goal, presents the biggest problem for the theory.
183) In part, agencies champion the synoptic model because it increases their relative authority over others.
228) The pluralist model provided a tremendous perceived advantage over a synoptic model that was perceived as biased.
After all, under the synoptic model citizen participation serves only to exchange information.
Simply put, the synoptic model is incapable of dealing with certain types of cultural concerns.
To be sure, citizens often break out of the synoptic model to address their concerns, but generally only by adopting a pluralist orientation.
393, 396-99, 413-21 (1981) (describing the synoptic model as "comprehensive rationality").