Indeed, it has been argued that, from the perspective of experimental psychology, a stimulus counts as subliminal regardless of whether we fail to attend to it because our mind is on something else, or we cannot attend to it because it was produced by a tachistoscope
or other such device (Erdelyi & Zizak, 2004; see also Heath, 2012).
Further support for the wearout explanation is found in a tachistoscope
study on warnings (Fischer et al.
The participant gave his or her reaction using a response switch attached to an AV tachistoscope
Air Force active-duty and reserve fighter pilots and showed them these images by tachistoscope
for 5 s.
through a tachistoscope
for 1 ms) or continuously for a period of 10 min.
The stimuli and mask were presented via a four-field Gerbrands tachistoscope
driven by an IBM compatible computer (AT) which also registered responses made by pressing one of two buttons for either left or right, under the index finger of both hands.
in a dimly lit sound-attenuated room and responded to a measure of subliminal perception that involved looking into a modified tachistoscope
at a number of slides that were presented at levels of illumination designed to be sufficiently low that participants reported no awareness of slide contents.
A three-field projection tachistoscope
and three Kodak SAV 2050 projectors were used to present the stimuli.
projected a light background between trials to mask any retinal afterimages.
found that sheep were more likely than goats to attempt an identification of a degraded picture presented against a background pattern of dots in a tachistoscope
and that they were more likely than goats to make an erroneous identification.