terminology

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terminology

The terminology used in the computer and telecommunications field adds tremendous confusion not only for the lay person, but for the technicians themselves. What many do not realize is that terms are made up by anybody and everybody in a nonchalant, casual manner without any regard or understanding of their ultimate ramifications. Programmers come up with error messages that make sense to them at the moment and never give a thought that people actually have to read them when something goes wrong. In addition, marketing people turn everything upside down, naming things based on how high-tech and sexy they sound. And, the worst of all is naming specific technologies with generic words. See naming fiascos and technical writer.

Following is an example of two routing protocols that are used to keep routers up-to-date with network information. OSPF and IS-IS do similar things; in fact, OSPF evolved from IS-IS, yet every element associated with these standards has a different name. This constant changing of names, changing of menus, changing of parameters, etc., is what makes this field incomprehensible and discourages a lot of good people from entering it.

IS-IS              OSPF

 Subdomain          = Area

 Level-1 area       = Non-backbone area

 Level-2 subdomain  = Backbone area

 L1L2 router        = Area Border Router

 Intermediate       = Autonomous System
  System               Boundary Router

 End system         = Host

 Intermediate
  system            = Router

 Link               = Circuit

 Protocol
  data unit         = Packet

 Designated         = Designated
  Intermediate         Router
  System

 Link-State PDU     = Link-State
                       Advertisement

 IIH PDU            = Hello packet

 Complete Sequence  = Database description
  Number PDU

Terminology

 

a branch of vocabulary; the sum total of the terms used in a particular area of science, technology, industry, art, or public life and connected with a corresponding system of concepts. The establishment of a terminology is conditioned by social, scientific, and technological development, since every new concept in a specialized area must be designated by a term.

A system of terminology must correspond to the current state of development in a given area of science, technology, or human activity. Terminology changes over the course of history and derives from various sources. For example, with the development of philosophy and science in the Middle East, the terminologies of the Muslim countries were based on Arabic. Renaissance Europe tended to base its terminologies on Greek and Latin. More recently, an increasing number of terms have been based on national languages accompanied by borrowing from foreign languages. Russian terminology also makes extensive use of foreign elements of terminology combined with native elements, for example, superoblozhka (“dust jacket”) and ocherkist (”essayist”).

Terminologies are subject to regulation, standardization, and lexicography. The compilation of terminological dictionaries for various languages, as well as of specialized terminological dictionaries, is of great importance. Aspects of terminology are dealt with by conventional and machine translation, by information retrieval systems, and by the field of documentation. In the USSR, the Committee on Scientific and Technological Terminology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the State Committee on Standards of the USSR deal with terminology. International organizations concerned with terminology include the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and UNESCO (INFOTERM).

REFERENCES

Lotte, D. S. Osnovy postroeniia nauchno-tekhnicheskoi i dr. terminologii: Voprosy teorii i metodiki. Moscow, 1961.
Reformatskii, A. A. Chto takoe termin i terminologiia. Moscow, 1959.
Kak rabotat’ nad [nauchno-tekhnicheskoi] terminologia. Moscow, 1968.
Sovremennye problemy terminologii v nauke i tekhnike. Moscow, 1969.
Kandelaki, T. L. “Znacheniia terminov i sistemy znachenii nauchnotekhnicheskikh terminologii.” In Problemy iazyka nauki i tekhniki. Moscow, 1970.
Lingvisticheskie problemy nauchno-tekhnicheskoi terminologii. Moscow, 1970.

T. L. KANDELAKI and V. P. NEROZNAK

References in periodicals archive ?
They are terminologically distinguished as derrin (hot cooking rocks).
Thus, terminologically, 'sequential art' highlights the urge, in the cultural arena, for comic books to be considered on equal terms with those artistic expressions usually labelled as 'high art'.
Though any translation process is partly based on linguistic intuition, for each type of special purpose text there is a well-defined class of criteria used to check whether the equivalents provided are accurate, conceptually and terminologically congruent and functional in the particular jargon of the target language.
Terminologically speaking, the ecclesiastical institution that remained constant in following the Julian Calendar was forced to use differentiating elements in the official papers, although it did not cause change.
Construction from terminologically optimized plastics.
A candidate like method, in position 8, is instead terminologically less interesting, and therefore in this experiment it is considered a false positive, even when the Mosby dictionary reserves an entry for this unit.
As compared to qabbalah, a paradigm that has given rise to a whole range of de-centered critical approaches (a Hermeneutics of suspicion as against a Hermeneutics of faith, to use Paul Ricoeur's terms), qiblah terminologically designates a centre and a direction that has the function of regulating all the spiritual and cognitive practices of its adherents.
In case there is a need to refer terminologically to the two cases (overt and covert manifestation of modality), we can adopt the terms 'modal' and 'non-modal'; non-modal implying 'no overt modal markers at surface structure' (cf Huddleston 1988: 78).
24) Terminologically, the Church points to a development that opens the path to transcendence for the human being and underscores that the person "far from being the ultimate measure of all things can only realize himself by reaching beyond himself.
The standard definition (according to the Brundtland Commission in 1987) states: "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"--but this is terminologically confined to teleological categories of resources and goods, that is, it focuses on needs and on the means for satisfying them.
Thus, it might be useful to distinguish terminologically between a similarity map (e.
Terminologically, genocide refers to the extermination of a gens, a people.