thalamus

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thalamus

(thăl`əməs), mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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 just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers. In addition, it connects various brain centers with others. Thus the thalamus is a major integrative complex, enabling sensory stimuli to evoke appropriate physical reactions as well as to affect emotions. With the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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, the thalamus establishes levels of sleep and wakefulness. It is also vital to the neural feedback system controlling brain wave rhythms.

Thalamus

 

a conglomerate of the nuclei of gray matter (nerve cells) in the brain, located between the mesencephalon and the cerebral cortex; it is the main part of the diencephalon.

The thalamus developed for the first time in bony fish. In ontogenesis it develops from the prosencephalon sac. The thalamus is a nucleus in which afferent nerve impulses coming from all the sense organs (except the olfactory organs) gather. Each type of sensory pathway has its own specific nuclei (lateral group) in which the impulses are transmitted from one nerve cell to another and are transferred to the appropriate zone of the cerebral cortex. Associative nonspecific nuclei (medial group) receive stimuli from specific nuclei of the thalamus and from nonspecific structures of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and medulla oblongata and transmit them to various subcortical and cortical neurons. The thalamus is involved in primary analysis and synthesis of all stimuli entering the brain from the neuroreceptors. In lower vertebrate animals the thalamus ensures performance of all necessary reflexes; in mammals and man the higher center of integration is the cerebral cortex. Under the thalamus lies the hypothalamus.

IU. A. FADEEV

thalamus

[′thal·ə·məs]
(anatomy)
Either one of two masses of gray matter located on the sides of the third ventricle and forming part of the lateral wall of that cavity.

thalamus, thalamium

In early Greek architecture, an inner room or chamber, esp. the women’s apartment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acute bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts after occlusion of the artery of Percheron.
3K27 mutations have been found in very rare pediatric thalamic gliomas exhibiting pilocytic morphology and having MAPK-related alterations.
In addition to this, a meta-analysis which combined findings from 15 DTI studies reported two main regions in schizophrenia patients: left frontal and temporal white matter including anterior thalamic radiation (33).
A case of symptomatic hemidystonia improved by ventroposterior thalamic electrostimulation.
Anticonvulsant effect of unilateral anterior thalamic high frequency electrical stimulation on amygdala-kindled seizures in rat.
Distribution of the cases according to the location of the hemorrhage Cerebellar Hemorrhage 8 Ponto-Mesencephallic Hemorrhage 3 Mesencephalic Hemorrhage 3 Pontine Hemorrhage 10 Ventricular Hemorrhage 4 Occipital Hemorrhage 4 Temporal Hemorrhage 11 Parietal Hemorrhage 18 Frontal Hemorrhage 9 Thalamic Hemorrhage 32 Basal Nucleus Hemorrhage 58 Note: Table made from bar graph.
We propose the rearrangement on existing data on connections between the thalamus and the neocortex in computational design, suggesting there is a positive advance towards understanding the cognitive phenomena from the biological substrate of thalamo-cortical circuit if we modify the methodological approach in order to bring the spotlight into thalamic connections.
There were no cases of altered mental status or seizure, nor any cortical, subcortical, basal ganglia, or thalamic lesions on MRI, according to the CDC report.
nucleus accumbens, subthalamic nucleus and lower thalamic peduncle.
Neurosurgeons, pain specialists, and other physicians from the US and Asia consider morphological brain changes; how thalamic burst-firing in response to experimental pain stimuli and in patients with chronic neuropathic pain may be a carrier for pain-related signals; brain activity in patients with chronic neuropathic pain resulting from input deafferentation, brachial plexus avulsion, lateral thalamic vascular accident, and pain related to peripheral sources; surgical interventions; and thalamocortical abnormalities in spinal cord injury pain.
ISLAMABAD -- Pakistan has 7 million known cases of thalassaemia and it is important to create awareness about thalassaemia test before marriage to control the increasing number of thalamic patients, expert says.