At AEP's Tanner's Creek 995 MW station, located on the Ohio River near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, thermal stress cracking
and wall loss indicated impending failures of 60 percent of the feedwater outlet tubes in the heat exchanger on the plant's 500 MW super critical Unit 4.
This technique is often used to produce nonconductive films, since reactive DC sputtering of metals allows higher deposition rates and avoids the thermal stress cracking
associated with RF sputtering of nonconductive targets.
One method uses electrical energy, generally high-voltage radio-frequency power, to cause rapid resistive heating that induces thermal stress cracking.
This article will show that microwave energy can be used to induce thermal stress cracking to decrease the energy requirements of grinding selected iron ores.