Thrombus

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thrombus

[′thräm·bəs]
(medicine)
A blood clot occurring on the wall of a blood vessel where the endothelium is damaged.

Thrombus

 

a clot of blood formed during life.in the lumen of a blood vessel or in the heart. In a broader sense, extravascular clots of blood that form during bleeding, as well as clots of lymph in the lymphatics are also called thrombi.

The formation of a thrombus consists of the following stages: agglutination of platelets, coagulation of fibrinogen, agglutination of red blood cells, and precipitation of plasma proteins. Thrombi may be white, red, laminated, or hyaline. A white thrombus consists of platelets, fibrin, and white blood cells and is formed slowly during rapid blood flow, generally in arteries. A red thrombus, in which red blood cells predominate, forms rapidly during slow blood flow, generally in veins. The most common type of thrombus is the laminated thrombus, which has a layered structure and crimped surface and contains fragments of white and red thrombi. It is attached to the endothelium of a blood vessel, generally that of a vein; this differentiates it from a postmortem thrombus. A hyaline thrombus forms in blood vessels of the capillary bed and consists of a homogenized mass of protein.

A thrombus may be parietal or obstructive. A parietal thrombus forms within the heart in endocarditis and heart disease, in large arteries in atherosclerosis, and in veins in thrombophlebitis. As a parietal thrombus grows, it becomes obstructive, generally in small arteries and veins. A thrombus that grows rapidly into the lumen of a vessel is called progressive, and one that originates in cardiac insufficiency is called congestive. A thrombus that forms in aneurysms is called dilatational; one that is unattached within an atrium is called spherical. A thrombus can dissolve or can grow connective tissue, a process called organization. Thin-walled blood vessels may appear in this tissue (canalization), or calcium salts may be deposited (calcification). A thrombus may cause an embolism or may become purulent, a condition accompanied by a thrombobacterial embolism and leading to sepsis.

V. V. SEROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Free-floating right heart thrombi can be observed in patients with pulmonary embolism; however, it is a rarity to observe thrombus migration from the right heart to pulmonary artery during echocardiography.
Comparison of frequency of left ventricular thrombi in patients with anterior wall versus non-anterior wall acute myocardial infarction treated with antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy with or without coronary revascularization.
Histopathological features of aspirated thrombi after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Mobile Right Atrial Thrombi in a Patient with the Hemoglobin SC Disease.
Most of the thrombi were located in the left ventricular apex and almost all were detected within the first week after infarction18.
Multiple aortic thrombi associated with protein C and S deficiency.
10) Recent studies have shown significantly higher apparent diffusion coefficient in bland thrombi versus thrombi in hepatocellular carcinoma on diffusion weighted images (10) and even suggest DW imaging can be used as an alternative to contrast enhancement for thrombus characterization.
Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), which is commonly used for the treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke in adults, has also been used to treat cardiac thrombi in patients with congenital heart disease and right-to-left shunting (2), (3), (4).
Right atrial thrombi complicating use of central venous catheters in hemodialysis.
Managing patients with left ventricular thrombi causing an embolic stroke is challenging especially in the presence of hemorrhagic transformation as we present in this report.