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Simon's triangle is one of the landmarks utilised for preoperative localisation of RLN, which is bounded by common carotid artery laterally, tracheoesophageal groove medially, and inferior thyroid artery superiorly.
Superior thyroid artery mPSV was found higher in normal vitamin D level group compared to low vitamin D level group (32.
Attention must then be paid to the relatively constant superior branch of the inferior thyroid artery (Criminal branch) that often crosses underneath the RLN and spreads medially from beneath the nerve into the thyroid gland.
It is seen that the cranial thyroid artery contributes to ganglion supplying in all animals except rabbit.
The anatomical relationship of RLN and inferior thyroid artery is highly variable and the operating surgeon should have complete knowledge of the normal as well as abnormal variation of the anatomy of this structure.
Bergma & Thomson, reported that superior thyroid artery is generally considered to be present in 100% of cases and its absence has only been reported once.
Inferior thyroid artery arises from the thyrocervical trunk, a branch of the first part of the subclavian artery at the level of the first rib.
Since most cysts are located at the posterior, inferior position of thyroid glands near the intersection between inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve, the nerve should be well protected.
Surgical dissection techniques involved identifying both recurrent laryngeal nerves through out their course, securing of parathyroid glands with their intact blood supply and ligation of inferior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid capsule.
Using a pachymeter with 0,02mm of accuracy the distances were measured taking as a reference the origin of the lingual artery related to the the facial artery, the superior thyroid artery and with the bifurcation of the common carotid artery (Fig.
Two nondetachable silicon balloons were then placed through the guiding catheter; one was advanced into the internal carotid artery and placed just above its origin, and the other was advanced into the external carotid artery and placed just distal to the superior thyroid artery.
All terminal branches of superior thyroid artery, inferior thyroid artery and other unnamed vessels were cauterized with bipolar cautery.