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Related to toluene: Toluene diisocyanate


(tōl`yo͞oēn') or


(mĕth'əlbĕn`zēn), C7H8, colorless liquid aromatic hydrocarbon that melts at −95°C; and boils at 110.8°C;. It is insoluble in water but highly soluble in most organic solvents. Toluene is obtained from coal tar and petroleum by distillation. It is used as a solvent and as a starting material for the synthesis of many compounds, including dyes and explosives. When toluene is treated with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids (a process known as nitration), trinitrotoluenetrinitrotoluene
or TNT
, CH3C6H2(NO2)3, crystalline, aromatic compound that melts at 81°C;. It is prepared by the nitration of toluene.
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 (TNT) is produced.



(or methylbenzene), a colorless, flammable liquid with an odor similar to that of benzene. Melting point, –95°C; boiling point, 110.6°C; density, 0.8669 g/cm3 at 20°C.

Toluene forms explosive mixtures with air in proportions of 1.27–7.0 percent by volume. Its ignition temperature is 552°C, and its flash point is 4.4°C. Toluene is miscible with most organic solvents; at 22°C, 0.492 g of toluene dissolves in 1 kg of water, and 0.526 g of water dissolves in 1 kg of toluene.

Toluene is a component of certain petroleums. In industry, it is isolated mainly from coal tars and the products of the thermal conversion of petroleum fractions. Toluene is an important chemical raw material. It is characterized by reactions of electro-philic substitution in the aromatic ring and transformations of the methyl group, with retention of the ring. Electrophilic substitution occurs more readily than in benzene and is directed mainly at the para (4-) and ortho (2,6-) positions. Thus, the nitration of toluene using a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids yields, in sequence, the mononitro and dinitro derivatives and then 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Transformations of the methyl group occur through a radical mechanism. For example, chlorination under ultraviolet irradiation and with heating leads to benzyl chloride, C6H5CH2C1, benzal chloride, C6H5CHC12, and trichloromethylbenzene, C6H5CC13. Nitration with a solution of HNO3 in acetic acid yields α-nitrotoluene, C6H5CH2NO2, and oxidation yields benzyl alcohol, C6H5CH2OH, benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO, and benzoic acid, C6H5COOH.

Toluene is used in the manufacture of dyes, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and various intermediates. It is also used as a solvent in the production of plastics, paints, varnishes, and printing inks, as well as in the rubber industry.

Toluene is less toxic than benzene. The maximum permissible concentration of toluene vapor in the air is 0.05 mg per liter.



(organic chemistry)
C6H5CH3 A colorless, aromatic liquid derived from coal tar or from the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthas; insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and ether, boils at 111°C; used as a chemical intermediate, for explosives, and in high-octane gasolines. Also known as methylbenzene; phenylmethane; toluol.


a colourless volatile flammable liquid with an odour resembling that of benzene, obtained from petroleum and coal tar and used as a solvent and in the manufacture of many organic chemicals. Formula: C6H5CH3
References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter 2 examines the 25 largest countries of the market in more detail and provides information on demand, revenues, production, import, and export of toluene as well as capacities.
Toluene diisocyanate "cyclic" trimer (CAS Number: 26603-40-7)
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Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that high doses of toluene cause apoptosis and may lead to impairment of cardiac function in the acute period.
In aerobic conditions, benzene and toluene did not appear to affect community structure, but naphthalene stimulated the growth of Cycloclasticus spirillensus, a bacterium known to break down oil residues.
Once again, as we are concerned only with toluene and water vapor, this gives two vapor mass transfer rate equations and two liquid mass transfer rate equations.
In the present investigation, solid acid catalyzed nitration of toluene is carried out in batch and semi-batch modes of operation with and without continuous withdrawal of water formed during the reaction and the effect of process parameters viz.
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Students use scientific data to draw conclusions about the effects of toluene (a toxic component of many inhalants) on brain chemistry, behavior, and motor activity; students learn that the chemicals in inhalant vapors can lead to addiction.
Solvents, or their byproducts, known as DCE and toluene, were found in the soil at the defunct Keysor-Century Corp.
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