tone


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to tone: muscle tone

tone.

In music, a tone is distinguished from noise by its definite pitch, caused by the regularity of the vibrations which produce it. Any tone possesses the attributes of pitch, intensity, and quality. Pitch is determined by the frequency of the vibration, measured in cycles per second; intensity (or loudness) is determined by the amplitude, measured in decibels. Quality is determined by the overtones (see harmonicharmonic.
1 Physical term describing the vibration in segments of a sound-producing body (see sound). A string vibrates simultaneously in its whole length and in segments of halves, thirds, fourths, etc.
..... Click the link for more information.
), the distinctive timbre of any instrument being the result of the number and relative prominence of the overtones it produces. When two fairly loud tones of equal volume but different pitch are sounded together, a fainter resultant tone, representing either the sum of their two rates of vibration (summation tone) or the difference (difference tone) may be heard. The term whole tone or whole step refers to the intervalinterval,
in music, the difference in pitch between two tones. Intervals may be measured acoustically in terms of their vibration numbers. They are more generally named according to the number of steps they contain in the diatonic scale of the piano; e.g.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of a major second or its equivalent; the term half tone, semitone, or half step denotes a minor second (see scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
..... Click the link for more information.
).

Tone

 

in language. (1) A phonologically meaningful melodic variation of a sound’s pitch. A tone is produced by raising or lowering the voice; the resulting level of pitch may remain the same throughout a syllable or may become higher or lower. The number of such levels, or registers, varies from one language to another, but probably does not exceed four: one upper level, two intermediate levels, and one lower level.

A tone whose level remains constant throughout a syllable is called an even tone, and one whose level changes is called a contour tone. Contour tones may be one-directional (rising/falling) or two-directional (rising-falling/falling-rising). For example, in Chinese, (“mother”) has an even tone, nán (“south”) a rising tone, (“to stand”) a falling tone, and hsiěh (“to write”) a falling/rising tone. In some languages, such as Vietnamese, other features also distinguish tones, for example, intensity, length, pharyngealization, and glottal stops.

The character of tones may also depend on the nature of a syllable’s consonants. For example, in Tangut, initial voiceless consonants are combined with high pitch, and voiced consonants with a low pitch. All languages have pitch, or tonal modification of the voice as an element of intonation patterns, but not all languages have tones. In some languages, such as Serbo-Croatian, in which tones may be distinguished only in a stressed syllable, tones are usually regarded as a type of stress. In languages all of whose syllables have tones, tones are also called syllabic accents. Tones form a separate system of suprasegmental units of language; the system has its own paradigmatics and syntagmatics.

Tones also constitute a way of expressing lexical and grammatical meanings; compare, for example, shīh (“to lose”), shíh (“ten”), shìh (“deed”), and shǐh (“history”). In Nuer, a Nilotic language, lèi means “animal” and léi “animals.” In a spoken chain, the difference between tones is based on linear contrasts and not on the absolute physical pitch of a sound. A given tone may have different absolute characteristics in different positions, but it can always be identified by its contrast with other tones and by the morpheme’s paradigmatic unity. The number of tones in the world’s languages ranges from two to ten.

(2) The acoustic characteristics of a sound, determined by the concentration of energy in the sound’s higher and lower frequencies. In phonetics this concept is expressed by the term “tonality” rather than “tone.” Sounds may have high or low tonality; for example, in terms of the average frequency of the F2 formant, the Russian vowels u, o, and a have low tonality, whereas e and i have high tonality. In phonology, tonality is one of the universal distinctive phonemic features constituting the system of linguistic features formulated by R. O. Jakobson and M. Halle.

REFERENCES

Zinder, L. R. Obshchaia fonetika. Leningrad, 1960.
Fant, A. Akusticheskaia teoriia recheobrazovaniia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)
Pike, K. L. Tone Languages, 5th ed. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1961.
Wang, S.-J. “Phonological Features of Tone.” International journal of American Linguistics, 1967, vol. 33, no. 2, part 1.
Welmers, W. E. African Language Structures. Berkeley–Los Angeles–London, 1973.

V. A. VINOGRADOV


Tone

 

in music:

(1) A sound having a specific pitch; a musical sound. A tone may be either a pure sinusoidal vibration at a given frequency (pure tone), or it may contain several constituent frequencies.

(2) A whole tone, whether expressed as one-sixth of an octave, a major second, a diminished third, or a double augmented prime.

IU. N. KHOLOPOV


Tone

 

a river in Japan, on the island of Honshu. The Tone measures 322 km in length and drains an area of 15,760 sq km. Its sources are in the Echigo Mountains. The river irrigates the Kwanto Plain and flows into the Pacific Ocean. The Edo River, a branch of the Tone, flows into Tokyo Bay at Tokyo.

The mean flow rate in the lower course is approximately 180 cu m per sec, and the maximum flow rate is more than 500 cu m per sec. There are freshets in summer. The Tone is used for irrigation and as a water source. It is navigable as far as the city of Koga. The large fishing port of Choshi is situated at the Tone’s mouth.

tone

[′tōn]
(acoustics)
A sound oscillation capable of exciting an auditory sensation having pitch.
An auditory sensation having pitch.
(graphic arts)
Each distinguishable shade variation from black to white on photographs.

tone

1. US and Canadian another word for note
2. (in acoustic analysis) a sound resulting from periodic or regular vibrations, composed either of a simple sinusoidal waveform (pure tone) or of several such waveforms superimposed upon one main one (compound tone)
3. an interval of a major second; whole tone
4. any of several plainsong melodies or other chants used in the singing of psalms
5. the quality of a given colour, as modified by mixture with white or black; shade; tint
6. Physiol
a. the normal tension of a muscle at rest
b. the natural firmness of the tissues and normal functioning of bodily organs in health
7. the overall effect of the colour values and gradations of light and dark in a picture
8. Photog a colour or shade of colour, including black or grey, of a particular area on a negative or positive that can be distinguished from surrounding lighter or darker areas

tone

References in classic literature ?
He retired towards his own solitary gable, but turned his head, on reaching the door, and called to Phoebe, with a tone which certainly had laughter in it, yet which seemed to be more than half in earnest.
Scarcely had these tones sounded, everywhere there began tumult and sound, as if voices above and below the water.
It is not true," said Milady, in a tone of voice so firm, and with a countenance so unchanged, that if D'Artagnan had not been in such perfect possession of the fact, he would have doubted.
The queen-mother rose, and with a tone of authority said, "Pray set off, sir.
And as I had spoken in measured tones and hadn't got red in the face she let herself go.
It was the note which the family had taken to sounding on the mention of the Countess Olenska's name, since she had surprised and inconvenienced them by remaining obdurate to her husband's advances; but on May's lips it gave food for thought, and Archer looked at her with the sense of strangeness that sometimes came over him when she was most in the tone of her environment.
These words, uttered in a tone of surprise and reproach, drew upon this unknown personage the attention of the archdeacon which, to tell the truth, had not been diverted from him a single moment since the stranger had set foot across the threshold of his cell.
Her husband looked at her as if surprised to notice that someone besides Pierre and himself was in the room, and addressed her in a tone of frigid politeness.
Gahan spoke quickly in tones vibrant with authority.
Rosa, however, clasped her hands, and said with that tone of honest truth which generally finds its way to the hearts of men, --
His tone had hurt her--his tone had roused her sinking courage.
The last three words were added in a different tone, for Polly had checked herself there with a half-frightened look and turned away to hide her face behind her hair again.