Today, farmers are in distress, businessmen are angry over botched tax reforms and most importantly, his core support base of youths are restless because of rising unemployment in Gujarat, a state that has been the laboratory of Modi's top-down model
We used a top-down model
, because leadership creates conditions that allow permission.
The project aims to accomplish these objectives by conducting research on the paradigm shift from the traditional top-down model
to demand and bottom-up driven models when citizens, Civil servants, Private, And third sector organizations voluntarily participate in the development of transformative innovations addressing changing needs and social problems.
While human subject research public policy was created using a top-down model
from the Federal government, MRC chose to implement federal policy using a hybrid model of implementation that meets federal requirements, while capitalizing on the role the local actors can play in the implementation process.
This type of top-down model
did not influence and improve the health of the community meaningfully.
From the outset, the project aimed to encourage student ownership and agency, and deliberately avoided a top-down model
in which faculty would guide the research activities.
Now this top-down model
of online learning is being joined by a surge in new commercial and university offerings.
Barclays Plc analyst, Ian Scott, and colleagues said, 'Although bottom-up analysts have already increased their 2015 revenue growth forecasts from 2 percent to 4 percent since late January, our top-down model
suggests a further acceleration is imminent, with 6 percent likely for the year as a whole.
Whereas the top-down model
suggests that producers largely determine how consumers behave, the bottom-up model suggests that consumers decide how markets operate.
Last year, CIBC Economics' top-down model
, which is based on a set of macroeconomic, cost and resource market indicators, accurately anticipated a disappointing low, single-digit pace for TSX composite earnings.
This capability trap has been facilitated by four conditions; (i) high expectations on the government without sequencing or prioritization, (ii) more weight on immediate results than on establishing capable institutions, (iii) a limited menu of acceptable options for institutional arrangements, leading to strong pressures for simple 'transplantation', and (iv) a top-down model
government to assist such projects, encouraging native initiatives instead of the old top-down model
of government assistance.