The surface quality was analyzed according to roughness and waviness standard parameters and to the depth of torn grain.
z] are good descriptors of the fuzzy grain and torn grain in wood surfaces, respectively.
with a maximum depth of 1/32" will be permitted on molded stock in not over 10 per cent of the length in any one piece.
In addition, no torn grain was observed for surfaces prepared with a rake angle of 10[degrees] regardless of feed speed.
Although slight torn grain was observed, Cool and Hernandez (2011a) recently reported that the peripheral planing process with a 12[degrees] rake angle and a wavelength of 1.
Distorted or sloping grain around knots may lead to torn grain or fuzzy grain in later machining.
A second major cause of part loss is rejected parts where machining operations expose hidden defects, cause breakage or torn grain, or produce mismachined profiles, faces or edges.
The maximum depth of torn grain
produced by planing was also measured for eight cutting conditions.
It saws well, but torn grain
can be a problem when dressing quartered faces.
, raised grain, and chipmarks are reduced in helical planing, due to a gradual cutting action (Jones 1994).
Defect type and severity were also classified according to raised, fuzzy, and torn grain
The quality of planing was also evaluated on a quantitative basis by measuring the depth of the torn grain