toxoid


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Related to toxoid: tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid

toxoid,

protein toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, or antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, remains. Because toxoids can be given in large quantities with no risk of tissue damage, they have superseded the highly poisonous toxins as immunizing agents against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus.

Toxoid

 

(also anatoxin), a harmless derivative of a toxin that retains its antigenic and immunogenic properties. It is obtained by rendering the toxin harmless with formalin at 37–40°C. A toxoid suitable for immunizing human beings was first obtained in 1923 by the French immunologist G. Ramon. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are used as prophylactic measures against these infections. Staphylococcal, botulin, and dysentery toxoids, toxoids produced by the causative agents of gas gangrene and made from the poisons of some poisonous snakes, and other toxoids have been produced and are used for specific prophylaxis and treatment. Toxoids are also used for immunizing horses in order to obtain medicinal antitoxic serums (antitetanus and antidiphtheria).

T. I. BULATOVA

toxoid

[′täk‚sȯid]
(immunology)
Detoxified toxin, but with antigenic properties intact; toxoids of tetanus and diphtheria are used for immunization.
References in periodicals archive ?
A tetanus toxoid vaccine was given to women of reproductive age during the March and October 2014 tetanus immunization campaign of Kenya's Ministry of Health.
The working group described the safety data on two Tdap doses as "reassuring," noting that the tetanus toxoid vaccine has not been associated with an excess risk of adverse events.
CDC, Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis Among Adults: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine.
2,9,11) Specifically, Talan et al (2) demonstrated that, of the 504 patients who presented with tetanus-prone wounds and inadequate immunization history, none received tetanus toxoid and immunoglobulin as indicated.
The maternal tetanus toxoid coverage reported in the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey for 1990-91 was 23 percent.
Clostridium C & D toxoid will protect against overeating disease and Tetanus toxoid will guard against tetanus.
Tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccination would decrease the risk for recurrence of widespread diphtheria in the United States.
If Guillain-Barre Syndrome occurred within six weeks after receipt of a previous dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine, the decision to give subsequent doses of the Td vaccine or any vaccine containing tetanus toxoid should be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and possible risks.
During the campaign Extended Programme on Immunization (EPI) injection is being given to infants while Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections are also given to pregnant women to prevent them from diseases.
The week long activities would focus on prevention of diarrhea among the children, distribution of ORS and zinc syrup, immunization of children against communicable diseases under two years, tetnus toxoid vaccination for pregnant women, providing counselling services to pregnant women, provision of iron and folic acid tablets to the mother and children for overcoming anemia and malnutrition among children, providing family planning services, promotion of personal hygiene, washing hands and prevention of pneumonia.