toxoid


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Related to toxoid: tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid

toxoid,

protein toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, or antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, remains. Because toxoids can be given in large quantities with no risk of tissue damage, they have superseded the highly poisonous toxins as immunizing agents against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus.

Toxoid

 

(also anatoxin), a harmless derivative of a toxin that retains its antigenic and immunogenic properties. It is obtained by rendering the toxin harmless with formalin at 37–40°C. A toxoid suitable for immunizing human beings was first obtained in 1923 by the French immunologist G. Ramon. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are used as prophylactic measures against these infections. Staphylococcal, botulin, and dysentery toxoids, toxoids produced by the causative agents of gas gangrene and made from the poisons of some poisonous snakes, and other toxoids have been produced and are used for specific prophylaxis and treatment. Toxoids are also used for immunizing horses in order to obtain medicinal antitoxic serums (antitetanus and antidiphtheria).

T. I. BULATOVA

toxoid

[′täk‚sȯid]
(immunology)
Detoxified toxin, but with antigenic properties intact; toxoids of tetanus and diphtheria are used for immunization.
References in periodicals archive ?
Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged <12 months--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a naturally occurring hormone necessary to sustain pregnancy The bishops said if the beta form of HCG is carried by a tetanus toxoid molecule and injected into a woman, it becomes an antigen that stimulates production of anti-HCG antibodies, which destroy the natural HCG.
Thus, increasing the maternal tetanus toxoid coverage, an easier task, is vital.
Sandigo discovered the stricken lamb, he isolated it in a dark stall to minimize external stimulus and immediately vaccinated it with the tetanus toxoid.
Twenty recalled having had at least one dose of tetanus toxoid although only two of these 20 fitted the criteria for adequate immunization.
Toxoid injection stimulates antibodies to protect against this toxin.
If Guillain-Barre Syndrome occurred within six weeks after receipt of a previous dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine, the decision to give subsequent doses of the Td vaccine or any vaccine containing tetanus toxoid should be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and possible risks.
5 ml of vaccine contains at least 30 IU of diphtheria toxoid, at least 40 IU of tetanus toxoid, at least 25 micrograms of pertussis toxoid, at least 55 micrograms of B.
Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of the healthcare company Sanofi Group (Euronext:SAN) (NYSE: SNY), announced on Monday the approval by Health Canada of the expansion of the indication for Menactra (Meningococcal [Groups A, C, Y and W-135] Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine) down to infants nine months of age.
The most recent changes are the interim recommendations from the February 2011 ACIP meeting pertaining to tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine immunization and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for health care personnel.