pidgin

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pidgin

(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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.

Bibliography

See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
we have no guarantees that any of the people we work with in the 20th century are speaking the same language as their ancestors, because a language shift can come about, not through a relatively visible mass assimilation like the Mancouten (Goddard 1978: 670), but, as in the case of the Chippewa and Potawatomi speakers of Ottawa in Michigan and Ontario, by silently slipping into the trade language.
Pidgins and trade languages have highly simplified grammars and limited vocabularies; they are always second languages.
Perhaps because the rational choice basis of such trade languages (pidgins) is entirely obvious, pidgins have been defined out existence to keep traditional linguistic theory safe from embarrassing contact with rational choice considerations.
The Inspiration Networks also operate "Inspiration Video On Demand," the first inspirational platform for cable television video on demand (VOD) delivery; "Inspiration Global," providing broadband video content in the world's four major trade languages - French, Italian, German, and Spanish; and "Inspiration Mobile," capable of simultaneously delivering daily inspirational messages to millions of cell phone users across the U.
FCBH is also in the process of translating, or 'localizing', the Virtual Recording website into major trade languages for easier access and use by participants around the world.