pharming

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pharming

(fär`mĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.

Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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. A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.

pharming

Setting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into DNS servers and changing IP addresses (see DNS hijacking), users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored.

For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could just collect usernames and passwords, or it could allow access to the site and, using some pretense, request financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use e-mail to make people go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are going to the site on their own and are certainly not suspicious because the pages look familiar. See phishing and DNS hijacking.
References in periodicals archive ?
Are transgenics a superior technology that will solve our problems?
These companies are the only ones in Brazil that regularly monitor the adoption of transgenics in agriculture - and have been doing so from the start.
There is very little conclusive scientific information about the environmental impact of transgenics.
As a step toward resolving this issue, Howard and his colleagues set out to examine the risk transgenic fish might pose to natural-bred populations.
Those transgenic plants are hybridizing with Brassica rapa, one of the weedy parents of crop canola, according to Suzanne Warwick at Agriculture Canada in Ottawa.
Transgenic soy and, to a lesser extent, corn seeds smuggled from Argentina already have caused a small percentage of soy and corn product in Brazil to test positive for modification.
domestic policy, in contrast, requires critics to prove that transgenics are potentially dangerous--a deploy-now-ask-questions-later approach which places industry aspirations above public interest and safety.
Transgenics is the process of taking DNA from one species and implanting it into the genetic structure of another.
On transgenics, less than one in a thousand flowers were rosetted.
There is a requirement for Animals Models from Library Stocks and Strains, and also for the production of heterozygotic and homozygotic Transgenic animal models from genetic information supplied.
Hoping to attract more attention to this versatile grain and to stimulate research, they describe the fascinating relationship between humans and barley through time, and barley's taxonomy, morphology, anatomy, breeding, transgenics, genetics, nutritional composition, processing, methods of a valuation of food product quality, food product research and development, health benefits, current production and utilization.