pharming

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pharming

(fär`mĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.

Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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. A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.

pharming

Setting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into the Internet's DNS servers and changing IP addresses, users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored. See DNS hijacking.

For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could collect usernames and passwords or using some pretense request additional financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use a link in an email message to go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are purposefully going to a familiar site.

Check the Address Line
The only way to avoid being suckered in is to always check the address line in the browser. Most people never do this and may not even be familiar with the valid URL of the site they go to all the time because they just click a bookmark. For example, if mybank.com were switched to mybnk.com, only an extremely observant user would notice and question this discrepancy. See phishing.
References in periodicals archive ?
An Argentine grower told the tribunal that, with transgenics and glyphosate, farmers don't have to till the land as much.
Ireland-based ERS Genomics has signed a non-exclusive license agreement with Knudra Transgenics, a company involved in model-organism bioengineering.
It has exclusive focus on development of hybrids in pigeonpea, transgenics against pod borer in chickpea and pigeonpea, high yielding varieties with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, bio-intensification of pulse-based cropping systems and resource conservation, mechanization and minimizing post harvest yield loss, climate risk management and efficient extension models for dissemination of pulse-based technologies for farmers to make the pulse cultivation in the country productive and remunerative.
Can both transgenics and marker-assisted cross-breeding help us handle our growing population and changing climate?
In fact, the majority of states that responded - 13 of the 23 - stressed the opposition of their citizens to transgenic plant cultivation and explained that they do not cultivate GMOs for this reason.
have successfully produced transgenic silkworms capable of spinning artificial spider silks.
This led to seed testing in Chile's fields, according to Maria Isabel Manzur, an expert in transgenics at the Sustainable Societies Foundation.
A molecular biologist and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Plant Sciences at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, Gressel makes clear how molecular biology and transgenics can overcome these constraints, and enable the sort of progress which is otherwise out of reach.
he used techniques with mice including gene knock-out (removing a single gene from the genome) and transgenics (adding a new gene) to study obesity and diabetes.
Genetic engineering, on the other hand, holds great promise for transferring genes across taxa for development of transgenics resistant to this insect with the insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) genes (cry) from the soil-borne bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
angentatum transgenics, in three different lines, constitutively overexpressing non-native genes encoding three different trans-prenyl transferases that synthesize different allylic pyrophosphate initiators produced healthy plants.