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the seasonal movement of human groups in search of pastures; for example, the movement from dry season to wet season pastures undertaken by the Nuer. See also PASTORALISM, NOMADS, HERDING SOCIETY.



the seasonal movement of animals between pastures that are located far from residential and production centers. The animals are pastured year-round or for the greater part of the year. Sheep, horses, camels, and yaks are best adapted to transhumance. In many regions cattle are also kept on seasonal pastures.

The principal regions of transhumance in the USSR are Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, and the Northern Caucasus, as well as southeastern regions of the European RSFSR and of Western and Eastern Siberia. A nomadic system, in which land cultivation and systematic stock raising were nonexistent, formerly prevailed in many of these regions. When kolkhozes and sovkhozes were first organized, livestock usually was both pastured and stabled. With the growth of herds, farms were no longer able to supply sufficient feed from their own land.

In 1942 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) and of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR passed the resolution On Measures for the Care of Offspring and Increase in Livestock Herds on Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes, which set forth a program for the organization of transhumant animal raising. From 1945 to 1973, many old pastures were irrigated and improved, and many new pastures were created. Mechanized stock-raising stations and brigades to help farms prepare reserves of fodder and mechanize water lifting and other labor-intensive processes have been set up on the distant pastures. Many farms have irrigated areas for growing fodder plants. An evaluation of pastures (to assess their natural characteristics and farming capacity), pasture rotation, and enclosed pasturing have been introduced.

The entire camel and yak population, more than 50 percent of the sheep and goat population, 25 percent of the cattle population, and a large number of horses are concentrated in the desert, semidesert, steppe, and mountain regions of the USSR. In the spring, summer, and autumn, all the livestock in these regions are pastured. In the winter 30–35 million head are pastured. Light-weight structures made of local materials, sheds, and windbreaks are built to shelter the animals during bad weather. Permanent dwellings or portable cottages or yurts are provided for the herdsmen. Farm and interfarm cultural centers are being established in many regions.

The economic merit of transhumant stock raising has been proved. The net cost of the animal products is decreased significantly because expenditures for feed, maintenance, and labor are minimal. Considerable areas of arable land on the farms are freed for the development of other branches of agriculture.

A year-round pasturing system is used in several countries, including Australia, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, and New Zealand. In Australia, about 170 million sheep and about 18 million cattle are pastured year-round. In Mongolia more than 22 million head of livestock are kept in pastures throughout the year.


References in periodicals archive ?
Second, if transhumant herding is hypothesised above the upper limit of wheat, the question of what its triggering cause/s might have been requires explanation.
This suggests that these pasturelands were seasonally leased in exchange for manure, either to cattle coming from Figaro-Montmany or to transhumant sheep coming from the Pyrenees, a common practice that would help to fill the fertiliser gap.
Given the need for extensive landholdings or a transhumant lifestyle to graze animals, stock-keeping settlers were widely dispersed in small numbers across open landscapes.
Pastoralist households commonly manage livestock mortality risk ex ante, primarily through animal husbandry practices, in particular nomadic or transhumant migration in response to spatiotemporal variability in forage and water availability.
Pastoralists accomplish an 'intelligent' harvesting of unstable concentrations of resources by adopting a nomadic spatial behavior (movement within one ecozone) or transhumant spatiality (seasonal mobility between different ecozones),marked by repeated transitions from one pasture area to another in response to climate changes and in an effort to maximize rearing conditions for the livestock herds (Kratli and Schareika, 2010).
52) Several indigenous groups in Burkina Faso were nomadic livestock herders and the movement of these transhumant breeders often created conflicts with the subsistence farmers over water consumption.
Les aspects esthetiques et identitaires du pastoralisme ont ete privilegies au detriment des savoir-faire pastoraux, des regles de gestion de l'elevage transhumant et de leur evolution (Leblon 2011 : 205-210).
Bartolome Arnolfo, a Native from Savoy in Madrid at the Middle of the Seventeenth Century, Financier, Merchant and Owner of Transhumant Livestock
He said Balochistan is under nomadic, sedentary and transhumant system and livestock has been considered a financial security in case of crops failure.
Farooquee (1998) concludes from his study that in the case of high altitude transhumant pastoral communities, livestock and cattle play a major role in the economic survival of these people, and account for more than 55% of their total income from various possible sources.
As a result of economic factors, the Khoekhoe could no longer practise their traditional mode of transhumant subsistence; hence they were systematically forced to work as labourers on "white" farms, or to move to urban localities.
Instead of returning to Damascus and England, Doughty spent the next two years in the late 1870s among the Bedouins as they traveled their seasonal dira, following their flocks on their transhumant course.