Trigeminal Nerve

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trigeminal nerve

[trī′jem·ə·nəl ′nərv]
The fifth cranial nerve in vertebrates; either of a pair of composite nerves rising from the side of the medulla, and with three great branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves.

Trigeminal Nerve


the fifth pair of cranial nerves. It contains sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers.

The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are located in the brain stem. The fibers of the trigeminal nerve that constitute the larger, or posterior, root pass from the brain stem to the apex of the temporal bone, where the trigeminal ganglion is located. Three branches depart from the trigeminal ganglion, as follows. The ophthalmic (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the upper eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin of the forehead, and the anterior part of the scalp. The superior maxillary (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, enters the pterygopalatine fossa, and innervates the skin of the lower lid, the cheek and nose, the mucosa of the nasal cavity, and the upper jaw. The inferior maxillary nerve (which is joined to the smaller, or anterior, root of the trigeminal nerve, containing the motor fibers) leaves the skull through the foramen ovale and innervates the skin of the lower part of the face, the mucosa of the cheeks and tongue, the lower jaw, and the muscles of mastication.

The trigeminal nerve takes part in many reflexes, including the corneal and mandibular (jaw) reflex. The most common disease of the trigeminal nerve is neuralgia, manifested by attacks of acute pain in the zone of innervation. Other diseases of the trigeminal nerve, including neuritis and infection with the virus of herpes zoster, are accompanied by sensory and motor disturbances in the zone of innervation.


References in periodicals archive ?
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (TNS) is the electrical stimulation of branches of the trigeminal nerve, including those located near the surface of the forehead.
Uc hastada lomber, altisinda torakal, birinde servikal, birinde cok sayida dermatomda, dordunde trigeminal, birinde sakral tutulum vardi.
During LeCompte's first surgery for microvascular decompression, doctors discovered an artery wrapped around the trigeminal nerve but in such a tricky fashion that it couldn't be unwound, so they inserted a "cushion" around the nerve to protect it from the blood vessel.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lobulated right-sided tumor in the trigeminal ganglion of the petrous apex, favoring a neoplasm.
This outpatient procedure involves insertion of a hollow needle through the cheek into the trigeminal nerve where it exits from the skull (Fig 1).
The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensation in the jaw and face, so you don't want to destroy it, but you have to calm it down and stop it from firing randomly," explained Alksne, who is a professor of neurosurgery at UCSD.
Persistent primitive trigeminal artery aneurysm evaluated by MR imaging and angiography.
4) Though TTS may not occur for months to years after trigeminal injury, 30 years is an unusually long latency and suggests that a superimposed process provoked the syndrome.
DENVER -- Gamma knife radiosurgery is a well-accepted treatment for classic trigeminal neuralgia, but what's not widely recognized is that it's also quite effective in patients with the atypical form of trigeminal neuralgia, Anil A.
At first, Soares studied alligator tissue and noted that the dots connect to the trigeminal nerve, which is the thickest of the cranial nerves in an alligator.
She had been struck down with trigeminal neuralgia, a nerve condition so painful it is also known as suicide disease.