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1. any of a class of lyric poets who flourished principally in Provence and N Italy from the 11th to the 13th centuries, writing chiefly on courtly love in complex metric form
2. a singer



a medieval Provençal poet-singer and songwriter; the troubadours flourished from the 11th to 13th centuries in southern France. About 500 troubadours are known, most of them knights or feudal lords, such as William IX, duke of Aquitaine. A few, however, were from the townspeople, for example, Folquet of Marseille, a merchant’s son, and Peire Vidal, the son of a furrier.

The poetry of the troubadours celebrated the joy of life and generally concerned the cult of the “fair lady, ” courtly love, or military exploits (many troubadours, such as William IX, count of Poitiers, had fought in the Crusades). Social and political themes may also be found, as in the work of Bertrán de Born. The lyrics of the troubadours are distinguished by their refinement, complexity of verse form, and musicality; they influenced the trouvères and the German minnesingers. A troubadour often performed with a minstrel, who accompanied him on a musical instrument.

G. Verdi’s opera Il Trovatore is based on the drama of the same name by A. Garcia Gutierrez. H. Heine, E. Rostand, L. Aragon, and T. S. Eliot were all influenced by the poetry of the troubadours, and themes from troubadour poetry appear in A. Blok’s The Rose and the Cross (1913). Many of the troubadours’ compositions have been published in the collection The Musical Heritage of the Troubadours. (See alsoPROVENÇAL LITERATURE.)


Ivanov, K. A. Trubadury, truvery i minnezingery, 2nd ed. Petrograd, 1915.
Istoriia frantsuzskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946. Pages 80–93.
Lommatzsch, E. Leben und Lieder der provenzalischen Troubadours, vols. 1–2. Berlin, 1957–59.
Gennrich, F. Der musicalische Nachlass der Troubadours, vols. 1–2. Darmstadt, 1958–60.


References in periodicals archive ?
Music City Hayride" will permanently move its regular weekly show to Ernest Tubb's Texas Troubadour Theater on August 7th.
Critique: An impressive work of theological and historical scholarship, "When Saint Francis Saved the Church: How a Converted Medieval Troubadour Created a Spiritual Vision for the Ages" is exceptionally well written, deftly organized, and accessibly presented.
Complete with the strumming of a Greek bouzouki, its a conversation between two lovers, Ysabella and Elias Cayrel, who was known to have courted the female troubadour at one point in Greece.
Mickey said:"From its inception the Troubadour club has always aimed to Nurture, help and develop the Irish song writing community as a whole and giving a voice and a platform for artists from all over the island.
Additionally, the Troubadour discovery is located near the Noble Energy-operated Big Bend well at Mississippi Canyon 698, in which W&T Offshore holds a 20% working interest.
Scholars of troubadour and trouvere song are indebted to and deeply reliant upon catalogs.
On the other hand, the transaction will help Troubadour to better serve its existing clients and attract new ones, its executive vice president, Jay Kirby, commented.
Thematic Catalogue of Troubadour and Trouvere Melodies" is a 369-page compendium developed by the late musicologist Donna Mayer-Martin who was unable to see the completion of her project.
At the age of 70, he's already completed two US tours, released three albums and achieved a longstanding ambition to play The Troubadour, the legendary West Hollywood venue famed for early shows by such songwriting heavyweights as Bob Dylan, The Byrds, Joni Mitchell, The Eagles, James Taylor and Elton John.
On the other hand, prior to the creation of the chansonniers and the Breviari, troubadour lyric had been experienced aurally, and so it lacked the determinate visual components of the written text.
SPECIAL SCREENING: Above, our own troubadour Vin Garbutt, and right, with film-maker Craig Hornby THE Georgian Theatre, Stockton, is having a night of film, music and conversation dedicated to South Bank-born legend Vin Garbutt.
Courtly seductions, modern subjections; troubadour literature and the medieval construction of the modern world.