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(tro͞o`bədôrz), aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g., Richard I, Cœur de Lion; Thibaut IV, king of Navarre; and Alfonso X, king of Castile and León. Of the more than 400 known troubadours living between 1090 and 1292 the most famous are Jaufré Rudel de Blaia, Bernart de Ventadorn, Peire VidalVidal, Peire
, fl. 1180–1206, Provençal troubadour, b. Toulouse. He spent much of his career in S France and traveled widely in Italy, Cyprus, Hungary, Spain, and Malta. Richard I (Richard Cœur de Lion) was one of his patrons.
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, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Folquet de MarseilleFolquet de Marseille
, 1150–1231, Provençal troubadour. He took orders, rose to be archbishop of Toulouse, and became notorious as the chief prosecutor in Provence of the Albigensian Crusade. Dante awarded him a place in Paradise.
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 (archbishop of Toulouse), Bertrand de BornBertrand de Born
or Bertran de Born
, c.1140–c.1214. French troubadour of Limousin. Some of his 40 surviving poems (in Provençal) tell of his part in the struggles between Henry II of England and his sons.
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, Arnaut Daniel, Gaucelm Faidit, Raimon de Miraval, Arnaut de Mareuil, and Guiraut Riquier. Of lower birth were the jongleursjongleurs
, itinerant entertainers of the Middle Ages in France and Norman England. Their repertoire included dancing, conjuring, acrobatics, the feats of the modern juggler, singing, and storytelling. Many were skilled in playing musical instruments.
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 who performed the troubadours' works and perhaps assisted in their composition. Troubadour lyrics were sung and accompanied by instruments that probably duplicated the melody (all the music preserved is monophonic). The poems were written in the southern dialect called langue d'oc. The most common forms were sirventes (political poems), plancs (dirges), albas (morning songs), pastorals, and Jeux-partis (disputes); the favorite subjects were courtly love, war, and nature. After the Albigensian Crusade (see AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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), in which many troubadours were caught up because their noble patrons were either sympathetic to the heretics or heretics themselves, Provençal culture declined. The influence of the widely traveling troubadours spread to central and N France, where their counterparts were the trouvèrestrouvères
, medieval poet-musicians of central and N France, fl. during the later 12th and the 13th cent. The trouvères imitated the troubadours of the south.
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. In Germany they were imitated by the minnesingersminnesinger
, a medieval German knight, poet, and singer of Minne, or courtly love. Originally imitators of Provençal troubadours, minnesingers developed their own style in the 13th and 14th cent.
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. The tradition was also carried to Spain and Italy. In France annual festivals known as the Jeux FlorauxJeux Floraux, Académie des
[Fr.,=academy of floral games], one of the oldest known literary societies. It was founded (c.1323) at Toulouse, France, by seven troubadours to uphold the traditions of courtly lyricism. It promulgated (c.
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 were established in the 14th cent. to revive troubadour art.


See H. J. Chaytor, The Troubadours (1970); R. D. L. Jameson, Trails of the Troubadours (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Depois das motivacoes, do ensaio sobre os cancioneiros, Les Troubadours descortina a sua primeira vida.
Complete with the strumming of a Greek bouzouki, its a conversation between two lovers, Ysabella and Elias Cayrel, who was known to have courted the female troubadour at one point in Greece.
The new American Troubadours play Grateful Fred''s at The Atkinson on Wednesday July 2.
Troubadours on the Rhine was recorded before a live audience in Germany's SWR studios and the heartfelt applause at the end of each song adds an authenticity and aliveness to the album.
For example, Keyser's statement that the origin of' the music of troubadour song is enigmatic is certainly arguable, but should be read against Margaret Switten's convincing study of the influence of the Aquitanian versus on the melodies of troubadour song ("Versus and Troubadours Around 1100: A Comparative Study of Refrain: Technique in the New Song,' " Plainsong and Medieval Music 16 [2007]: 91143).
Perhaps because of it, the text has not appealed to a great many modern scholars, as a comparison of the bibliography on the Breviari to that on any one of the major troubadours attests.
With the Troubadours of medieval France, Eros is viewed as a binding force that tends to bridge the gap between sense and spirit within the periphery of courtly love (amour courtois)--a powerful plea for refined sensuality.
De l'ecole a la cour" treats the education of the troubadours, both at monastic and cathedral schools and at the "school of life.
Ashiqs were mystic troubadours or traveling bards, who sang semi-improvised songs and played music in ancient Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Iran, press tv reported.
A statement from Sheffield rockers, Little Man Tate, who are playing T in the Park next month, said: "The Troubadours were acting like rock 'n' roll thugs all day, stealing bottles of Jack Daniel's and winding people up.
The Cycle of Five Troubadour Songs has English texts that were translated from the twelfth-century Provencal by Ezra Pound, who spent many years studying the troubadour tradition.
The most post-modern of twentieth century thinkers, he reminds us, ground themselves both deliberately and consciously in the universe of the troubadours.