troubadours


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troubadours

(tro͞o`bədôrz), aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g., Richard I, Cœur de Lion; Thibaut IV, king of Navarre; and Alfonso X, king of Castile and León. Of the more than 400 known troubadours living between 1090 and 1292 the most famous are Jaufré Rudel de Blaia, Bernart de Ventadorn, Peire VidalVidal, Peire
, fl. 1180–1206, Provençal troubadour, b. Toulouse. He spent much of his career in S France and traveled widely in Italy, Cyprus, Hungary, Spain, and Malta. Richard I (Richard Cœur de Lion) was one of his patrons.
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, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Folquet de MarseilleFolquet de Marseille
, 1150–1231, Provençal troubadour. He took orders, rose to be archbishop of Toulouse, and became notorious as the chief prosecutor in Provence of the Albigensian Crusade. Dante awarded him a place in Paradise.
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 (archbishop of Toulouse), Bertrand de BornBertrand de Born
or Bertran de Born
, c.1140–c.1214. French troubadour of Limousin. Some of his 40 surviving poems (in Provençal) tell of his part in the struggles between Henry II of England and his sons.
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, Arnaut Daniel, Gaucelm Faidit, Raimon de Miraval, Arnaut de Mareuil, and Guiraut Riquier. Of lower birth were the jongleursjongleurs
, itinerant entertainers of the Middle Ages in France and Norman England. Their repertoire included dancing, conjuring, acrobatics, the feats of the modern juggler, singing, and storytelling. Many were skilled in playing musical instruments.
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 who performed the troubadours' works and perhaps assisted in their composition. Troubadour lyrics were sung and accompanied by instruments that probably duplicated the melody (all the music preserved is monophonic). The poems were written in the southern dialect called langue d'oc. The most common forms were sirventes (political poems), plancs (dirges), albas (morning songs), pastorals, and Jeux-partis (disputes); the favorite subjects were courtly love, war, and nature. After the Albigensian Crusade (see AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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), in which many troubadours were caught up because their noble patrons were either sympathetic to the heretics or heretics themselves, Provençal culture declined. The influence of the widely traveling troubadours spread to central and N France, where their counterparts were the trouvèrestrouvères
, medieval poet-musicians of central and N France, fl. during the later 12th and the 13th cent. The trouvères imitated the troubadours of the south.
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. In Germany they were imitated by the minnesingersminnesinger
, a medieval German knight, poet, and singer of Minne, or courtly love. Originally imitators of Provençal troubadours, minnesingers developed their own style in the 13th and 14th cent.
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. The tradition was also carried to Spain and Italy. In France annual festivals known as the Jeux FlorauxJeux Floraux, Académie des
[Fr.,=academy of floral games], one of the oldest known literary societies. It was founded (c.1323) at Toulouse, France, by seven troubadours to uphold the traditions of courtly lyricism. It promulgated (c.
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 were established in the 14th cent. to revive troubadour art.

Bibliography

See H. J. Chaytor, The Troubadours (1970); R. D. L. Jameson, Trails of the Troubadours (1970).

References in classic literature ?
Pickwick, with the brigand on one arm, and the troubadour on the other, walked solemnly up the entrance.
Pickwick, ma'am,' said a servant, as that gentleman approached the presiding goddess, with his hat in his hand, and the brigand and troubadour on either arm.
Small harm then, but that my horse Troubadour trod with a tender foot upon a sharp stick, rearing and throwing me to the ground.
Why, then away ran Troubadour, for belike I spurred him in falling, and Bertrand rode after him as hard as hoofs could bear him.
When that is off we shall see how he regards the fair maid whose heart he cannot win, though her stern father bestows her hand," returned the troubadour.
Norman of Torn and the old man seldom joined in these wild orgies, but when minstrel, or troubadour, or storyteller wandered to his grim lair the Outlaw of Torn would sit enjoying the break in the winter's dull monotony to as late an hour as another; nor could any man of his great fierce horde outdrink their chief when he cared to indulge in the pleasures of the wine cup.
Nothing short of having your heads served up in a dish like that mediaeval tenor or troubadour, would prevent you from expressing your entire resignation.
Artist Leontios Toumpouris and Floricienta Iuvenalis will come together on Friday in Nicosia to present their joint work under the name The Troubadours of Desire.
Espera-se de uma obra intitulada Les Troubadours que ela resgate a poesia dos mais importantes trovadores occitanos, ou seja, dos criadores de um lirismo novo no Ocidente Medieval.
This Juno-nominated recording, the first on the Manitoba Chamber Orchestra's MCO label, delves into the legacy of the trobairitz, the female troubadours of the 12th and 13th centuries.
US singer-songwriters David Berkeley and Robby Hecht are touring the UK together under the banner The New American Troubadours, with a date at The Atkinson in Southport on Wednesday July 2.
Her clear, pure vocals are in full supply on her latest CD, Troubadours on the Rhine.