Tyrol

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Tyrol

(tĭr`ŏl, tīrōl`), Ger. Tirol, region and province (1991 pop. 631,410), 4,882 sq mi (12,644 sq km), W Austria. InnsbruckInnsbruck
, city (1991 pop. 118,112), capital of Tyrol prov., SW Austria, on the Inn River. A famous summer and winter tourist center, it is also an industrial, commercial, and transport center.
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 is the capital. The southern section of the historic region are now in Italy. Bordering on Germany in the north and on Italy and Switzerland in the south, it is an almost wholly Alpine region, traversed by the Inn River. The main part of the province is separated from the fertile East Tyrol (Ger. Osttirol) by a corridor belonging partly to Italy and partly to Salzburg prov., Austria. The Tyrolean Alps, which culminate in the Ötztal AlpsÖtztal Alps
, mountain group, in the Tyrol, W Austria, S of the Inn River and extending into northern Italy. It rises to 12,380 ft (3,773 m) in the Wildspitze, the highest peak in the Tyrol. The village of Obergurgl is a skiing resort and a starting point for mountain climbing.
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, are famed for their idyllic beauty and attract many tourists, thus supplementing income from the exploitation of the province's limited natural resources. Tourist centers include Kitzbühel, Kufstein, Sankt Anton, and Zell am See. Pasture farming, cattle raising, forestry, and dairy farming are the main occupations in the rural areas. Some industry is located at Innsbruck, Landeck, and Kufstein, including chemical, electrochemical, and pharmaceutical manufactures. The saltworks near Solbad Hall are an important source of revenue. The now little-worked silver and copper mines of Tyrol, known since antiquity, and its strategic position commanding the Brenner Pass across the Alps gave the region a fairly important role in European history.

The Tyrol was inhabited by Rhaetic tribes when it was conquered (15 B.C.) by the Romans. It was invaded (6th cent. A.D.) by Teutonic tribes, the Baiovarii and the Lombards, and later by the Franks, who held all Tyrol by the 8th cent. Large parts of S Tyrol (now in Italy) were ruled from the 11th cent. to 1802–3 by the bishops of TrentTrent,
Ital. Trento, Latin Tridentum, city (1991 pop. 101,545), capital of Trentino–Alto Adige and of Trent prov., N Italy, on the Adige River and on the road to the Brenner Pass. It is an industrial and tourist center.
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 and by the bishops of Brixen (see BressanoneBressanone
, Ger. Brixen, town (1991 pop. 16,992), Trentino–Alto Adige, N Italy, on the Brenner Road, and at the confluence of the Isarco and Rienza rivers. Bressanone and its surrounding territory were ruled by prince-bishops from the 11th cent.
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). The two bishoprics were secularized and fell to Austria in consequence of the Peace of Lunéville (1801) between France and Austria. The northern section (constituting the present Tyrol), first divided into petty counties, was united under the counts of Tyrol and passed, with the abdication (1363) of Margaret MaultaschMargaret Maultasch
[Ger.,=pocket mouth], 1318–69, countess of Tyrol, called the Ugly Duchess, probably because of her unattractive appearance, especially her mouth.
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, to Austria and the Hapsburgs.

In 1805 the Treaty of Pressburg awarded all Tyrol to Napoleon's ally, Bavaria, but when war broke out (1809) between France and Austria the Tyrolean peasants, led heroically by Andreas HoferHofer, Andreas
, 1767–1810, Austrian patriot; son of a Tyrolean innkeeper. After its defeat by Napoleon I in 1805 Austria was forced to cede the Tyrol to France's ally Bavaria.
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, rose in revolt and stubbornly defied the French and Bavarian troops. In 1810, Napoleon, at variance with Maximilian I of Bavaria, attached most of S Tyrol to Italy. Both parts were restored (1815) to Austria by the Congress of Vienna. The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919) awarded S Tyrol (the predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano and the predominantly Italian-speaking province of Trento) to Italy. The ruthless Italianization policy of the Fascist government created much unrest and friction in the period between the two World Wars, and the situation remained unsettled until the 1970s (see Trentino–Alto AdigeTrentino–Alto Adige
, region (1991 est. pop. 890,360), 5,256 sq mi (13,613 sq km), N Italy, bordering on Switzerland in the northwest and on Austria in the north. From 1919 to 1947 it was called Venezia Tridentina. Trent (Ital. Trento) is the capital of the region.
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). The Italian constitution of 1947 gave South Tyrol the status of an autonomous region, with full protection of minority rights, but real autonomy was not achieved until 1972.

Tyrol

, Tirol
a mountainous state of W Austria: passed to the Hapsburgs in 1363; S part transferred to Italy in 1919. Capital: Innsbruck. Pop.: 683 317 (2003 est.). Area: 12 648 sq. km (4883 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
14 /PRNewswire/ -- Tyrolean Airways of Innsbruck, Austria today announced a firm order for four high-speed de Havilland Dash 8(x) Series 400 aircraft plus options for an additional four from Bombardier Regional Aircraft Division.
Of a framework agreement for subsequent Contract Award due to this framework agreement concerning service and security services for the Tyrolean refugee homes.
Another good restaurant, at Trauttmansdorff Castle gardens (Cafe-restaurant Schlossgarten, Via S Valentino, tel: 00 39 0473 232350) serves a fine lunch of Tyrolean dishes, with main courses around pounds 5 and a bottle of Alto Adige Pinot Bianco around pounds 10.
Possible races for Tyrolean Dream include the Scottish Champion Hurdle and the Swinton Hurdle at Haydock.
It is just that she does not deserve to be less than halfthe price of Tyrolean Dream, as is the case with most firms this morning.
In December Tyrolean Airways, in which Austrian is a shareholder, ordered three firm and three option Fokker 70s.
today announced a follow-on order for two high-speed, 72-seat Bombardier Q400(i) turboprop airliners to Innsbruck-based Tyrolean Airways, subject to board approval.
Contract award: collection and research center of the tyrolean provincial museums - door systems (data online from 18.
The corpses, from the Tyrolean Imperial Guard, were found in a melted glacier with water bottles and bayonets beside them.
Pilots at the airline are reportedly pushing for collective bargaining that would bring the salaries of pilots at lower-cost subsidiaries Tyrolean Airways and Lauda Air up to those of the pilots at Austrian Airlines.
Mark Tompkins can spring a surprise with Tyrolean Dream in the Equity Financial Collections Gerry Feilden Intermediate Hurdle (1.
The Czech president, who in January won a final five-year-long term in office, was taken ill with stomach pains while on a two-week holiday with his wife in the Tyrolean Alps.