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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
Le salut des troupes bulgares a Simeon en presence du veritable empereur remplace son couronnement comme tzar des Bulgares et des Byzantins.
Tzar was handed into the West Yorkshire Stray Dog Pound where his previous owner told handlers that he had been imported for PS3,000.
Keith McDevitt, a former top police officer turned cybercrime tzar for the Scottish Government, said: "If your wireless network is not protected with a password, it is an open invitation for cyber criminals to hide their appalling activities behind you.
Not that it's going to be easy: Tzar is a rare Caucasian Shepherd Dog, or Caucasian Ovcharka, originating from Russia, and will grow to be a huge 100-kg dog.
Putin's ostentatious recent display of benevolence, by pardoning the ladies of Pussy Riot in much the same manner that the Tzar used to amnesty bomb-tossing revolutionaries before Christmas, is certainly not a repudiation of their arrests and grotesque show trial.
The device of the Court of the Red Tzar, when Stalin was murdering ministers, no one knows who will get the bullet next or what will happen.
Tzar Du Paon, from Gill Duffield's yard, is expected to better his UAE debut in the Maktoum Challenge First Round last month.
If anything good came out of this horror story it was the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the success of the Russian revolution in 1917 which overthrew the corrupt Tzar of Russia.
But he picked up an array of complimentary titles such as "the tzar of zapping" and "the beach boy of channel surfing" thanks to his remarkable product.
Alma Mater Gallery of St Kliment Ohridski University of Sofi a [15 Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd]
It is not known how much he is suing for in terms of damages, but the safety limit over the race's distance of 1m 22yds was cut following the incident, which resulted in two horses, including his mount, the John Best-trained Tzar, having to be destroyed.
But former Welsh Secretary John Redwood, now Michael Howard's anti- bureaucracy tzar, suggested he could make pounds 4.